Every person, from his/her childhood, knows that exercises help to be in good shape and improve health. In fact, the effect of exercises is much greater than one can imagine. The role of exercises is very important in human life. They improve people’s physical and spiritual qualities, enhance the muscles tonus, and add self-confidence. They also have an impact on the human’s soul, helping it to find a mental balance. The human body is not used to a sedentary lifestyle; it needs constant move and exercise. If the body does not get enough physical loading, the risks of cardiovascular system diseases rise greatly. When a person leads a sedentary lifestyle, cholesterol plaques form on the walls of blood vessels. They obstruct the flow of blood to the heart. As the result a person may suffer from a heart attack. If one does exercises regularly, the blood flow increases, the heart gets additional loading, and thus, becomes fit. Physical exercises burn much calories that help to fight obesity, keep fit and full of energy throughout a day. Thus, due to the physical exercises, one may in a quick way strengthen the immune and respiratory systems, improve organism’s flexibility and endurance as well as relieve stress. Furthermore, sport activities increase the amount of endorphins in the blood. Even such simple exercise as walking may improve health greatly.
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Health is not only one’s invaluable treasure, but also of the entire society. When meeting, parting with friends and loved people, everyone always wishes them a good and strong health because an excellent health guarantees a full and happy life. Health helps people fulfill their plans, overcome difficulties and solve their basic life tasks successfully. Good health that is reasonably maintained and strengthened, gives people long and active life.
Scientific researches suggest that most people have an opportunity to live up to 100 years and more, but only on conditions that they will do sports and look after their hygiene rules
Unfortunately, many people do not respect the most elementary and science-based standards of the healthy lifestyle. Some people are the victims of immobility (inactivity) that causes premature aging. Others do not pay any attention to the food they eat. Their everyday nutrition consists of junk and fast food products, including different types of pizzas, chocolate, candies, coke and some other artificially colored drinks. These products lead to different diseases and cause obesity, vascular sclerosis and some forms of diabetes.
Scientists state that junk food is not able to provide people with the necessary amount of vitamins, including A, C, D as well as minerals that are needed for their everyday life. In addition, fresh fruits and vegetables are rare visitors to the menu of schools and fast food restaurants. Furthermore, the sauces served with junk food may cause a serious thirst.
Ogden et al.,0 (2012) state, “More than one-third of adults and almost 17% of youth were obese in 2009 – 2010. There was no change in the prevalence of obesity among adults or children from 2007-2008 to 2009-2010. Obesity prevalence does not differ between men and women” (p.1).
American nutritionists always joke that before the “McDonalds” Americans were portrayed as slim cowboys; now as smiling fat men.
Every year, almost 300, 000 people in America die because of the complications associated with obesity. Many people call it an American eating crisis. It all happens because junk food products contain some additives that are inedible and harmful to people’s health. Such popular products as various kinds of chocolate, cola and flavored drinks are full of artificial colorings. Scientists claim that food coloring leads to hyperactivity and lapses of concentration in children and adults. Sports that require a big amount of running and aerobics will be the most effective way to fight the child obesity.
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Thus, the only way out of this problem is to do sports and exercises. Scientists state that different kinds of sports should be played, in order to fight the obesity among youth. When talking about obesity, the level of competition is not necessary.
Some people do not know how to relax and distract from the industrial and domestic concerns. They are always restless, nervous; suffer from insomnia which ultimately leads to numerous diseases of the internal organs. Furthermore, a lot of people are addicted to smoking and alcohol. These also actively shorten their lives.
Physical exercises are the actions, which are aimed to achieve the objectives of physical education. The word “exercise” denotes a sort of regular activity, aimed to affect the physical and mental qualities of a man. The ways of performing this action should also be improved.
Doing physical exercises leads to physical education because:
- Physical exercises express the thoughts, emotions, human needs, and its relation to the reality.
- Physical exercises are the only way to transfer social and historical experiences in physical education.
- Physical exercises affect not only the functional condition of the person but also his/her personality.
- Physical exercises meet the natural human need for movement.
On the other hand, incorrect doing of exercises may cause physical traumas. Thus, in order to avoid them one should consider the following factors, including:
- Pedagogically correct leadership training.
- Personal specific features including gender, age, health, etc.
- Take into account the limitations of the exercise (novelty, complexity, load and emotion).
- Features of the environmental conditions (weather, place of employment, the quality of the inventory).
Scientists state that the effect of exercise is determined primarily by the content. Physical education classes are useful not only for adults but also for children. They help to strengthen the bones and muscles of the child and prevent the body from osteoporosis. They also increase the flexibility of the body, protect against strains, and improve physical and mental stamina of the child.
No doubt, that work is the basis of the healthy life. Nowadays, there exists a misconception about a harmful effect of labor that causes a “wear”, premature aging and excessive use of energy and resource of the body.
Scientists state that physical and mental work is very useful. Though, physical work is wholesome only on conditions that it is well-organized, systematic and feasible. Only in such conditions, it will make a positive effect on the person’s nervous, skeletal and muscular systems, heart and blood vessels. Long live only these people that work a lot during their whole lives. And on the contrary, constant idleness leads to different muscle disorders, obesity and premature aging.
In most cases, overstrain and overwork is the result of the irresponsible choice of work routine. One should wisely distribute his/her physical and mental energy and power while organizing the working process. Even and rhythmic work is more productive and healthier than an alternation of periods of inactivity and urgent work.
Work that brings pleasure, interest and fun is done easily, often without stress, fatigue and tiredness. In order to feel strong and healthy, it is important to choose the right career that reflects personal skills and desires.
Some scholars differentiate three main types of exercises, including:
- Aerobic exercise;
- Nonaerobic exercises;
- Flexibility exercises.
The American Psychological Association state:
The word aerobic is made up of two Greek words: Aeros meaning air and Bios meaning life. Aerobic exercise is vigorous enough to increase the body’s need for oxygen and hence air intake and breathing rate increase. Aerobic exercise is done at a pace that allows an adequate supply of oxygen to reach your muscles as you work out. If you can hum to yourself or carry on a conversation as you work out then you are probably exercising aerobically. This type of exercise can be continued for 20 – 45 minutes without being exhausting.
There are different types of aerobic exercises, including swimming, walking, running, cycling, rowing, jogging etc. Cleveland Clinic (2011) states, that different benefits of aerobics include:
- Improvement of cardiovascular conditioning;
- Decrease the risk of heart disease;
- Lower blood pressure;
- Increase HDL or “good” cholesterol;
- Help to better control blood sugar;
- Assist in weight management and/or weight loss®;
- Improve lung function;
- Decrease resting heart rate;
Nonaerobic or Anaerobic exercises are concentrated on the prolonged activities such as marathon running or long-distance cycling. Nonaerobic exercises include jumping, weight lifting, sprinting etc. Anaerobic are exercises that contain short exertion and high-intensity movements.
Mueller J., & Nichols N. (2012) state, “While “aerobic” means “with oxygen,” anaerobic means “without air” or “without oxygen.” Anaerobic exercise is a short-lasting, high-intensity activity, where your body’s demand for oxygen exceeds the oxygen supply available. Anaerobic exercise relies on energy sources that are stored in the muscles and, unlike aerobic exercise, is not dependent on oxygen from (breathing) the air”.
There are also a lot of benefits of anaerobic exercises. First, they prevent cardiovascular diseases, different forms of arthritis, diabetes, low back pain etc. They also strengthen an immune system. Second, they build and maintain a lean muscle mass. A person begins to lose his/her muscle mass, starting from 25 years. It happens not because of aging, but because of leading a sedentary lifestyle. If somebody does not use his/her muscles, they have an ability to diminish. Sports athletes state that doing exercises is the best way to build, maintain and keep the muscle mass lean. Third, exercises increase bone strength and density. One has to do some weight lifting exercises in order the bones were strong and dense; otherwise, they will become soft and brittle. Fourth, exercises increase metabolism. They say that the bigger level of metabolism in man’s body, the easier to lose and gain fat. Exercises increase metabolism, by building and maintaining a lean muscle mass. Five exercises improve the body shape and appearance. No other type of exercises will reshape the body and improve appearance as strength training. Nonaerobic exercises make the body attractive, toned and strengthened.
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Flexibility exercises target all the groups of muscles. A fundamental form of any exercise program is stretching. Flexibility exercises improve the motion of muscles and joints. There are dynamic, static active and static passive flexibility exercises.
Emotions play a very important role while doing exercises. Emotions influence subcomponents of sport performance including attention, memory, perception decision-making and judgment. It is vitally important to experience only positive emotions while doing exercises, including joy, interest, hope, pride, inspiration and love. Positive attitude broadens attention, flexibility and fosters better results. Positive emotions increase person’s confidence in his/her abilities and skills. They also make a person more tolerate, expansive and creative.
Positive Psychology Resources (2006) state:
Ground-breaking work by Professor Barbara Frederickson has now provided an explanation for the role of positive emotion. Her work is known as “the broaden and build theory of positive emotion”. Frederickson’s thesis is that positive emotion does not simply signal well-being and the absence of negative emotions but has the capacity to encourage well-being and flourishing. Frederickson argues that while negative emotions narrow people’s perspective and keep them focused on the specific problem in hand (e.g. flight or fight), positive emotions “broaden” people’s likely thoughts and actions as well as their behavior. In other words, when we are experiencing positive emotions we have more “behavioral flexibility” and this allows us to build “intellectual and psychological resources”.
Thus, power and muscle size are directly related to exercises and training. Furthermore, exercises increase the blood flow to the muscles, improve the function of the nervous system, growth of the muscle fiber and muscle mass. The capacity and the endurance of physical work are the results of the musculoskeletal system training. An increase in physical activity for children and adolescents leads to changes in the skeletal system and more intensive growth of their body. Under the influence of exercises, bones become stronger and more resistant to stresses and injuries. Emotions also play an important role while doing exercises. Positive emotions, such as love, hope, pride etc., influence on the quantity and quality of the personal results in sports.