Discussions touching on the process of evolution are founded on the basic understanding that everything in the universe must have had a beginning. In a wider perspective, evolution is centered on the premise that the universe and things within have been undergoing some changes over time resulting to newer dimensions of things than the previous. Life forms are theoretically thought to have started remotely but experienced changes and advancements.
Many scientists and researchers have raised considerable concern on the concepts of how the process is said to have occurred as opposed to whether or not there was the evolution in the first place. The argument is that since the process occurs over time, then evolution does not happen to an individual but a change in the population. A population here refers to a grouping of genetically identical or compatible creatures that possess similar characteristics and are able to reproduce by the sexual union (Radolf & Samuels, 2010).
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Naturally like in the animal kingdom, the breeding and reproductive process involves mixing the male and female genes from two adults to produce offspring. Newer generations inherit genes from their parents hence during this breeding process certain things are bound to occur which lead to progressive changes. We understand that reproduction is about natural selection of the stronger and healthier partners. Survival for the fittest, the weakling will not have the privileged to breed hence naturally rendered extinct over time.
This kind of successive sexual reproduction creates a genetic pool which brings about small unnoticeable changes or variations in each individual member of the population. As the process passes from generation to generation, these variations are passed on too and eventually lead to considerable differences in the breeding. In other words, the genetic composition will experience a shift or significant change by the natural process over time hence a newer being with new characteristics emerge.
When this happens, evidence show that the newer generation cannot be genetically compatible with their ancestors hence breeding between them is impossible. Experts prefer to call this a genetic drift force that has been influenced by a natural selection process. On the other hand, the genes in an individual species can mutate and still be recessive in their host. This is what experts argue as the micro-evolutionary process.
Micro-evolution is considered as the smaller genetic changes in the pool but own their own are not significant enough to influence characteristic changes in the host creature or population. Some theorists believe that these smaller changes are the ones which eventually result to the macro-evolution or larger significant changes that manifest as new species through a natural reproductive process. A species is in simpler terms a variety of some kind that might hold some similarity as well as considerable difference from their ancestral characteristics.
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It is noted here that the operative mechanism for evolution is the natural selection process hence making the whole process a master of its own outcomes. We all know that genetic mutation as a force of evolution occurs randomly for example. Genetic drift also as second force occurs naturally and randomly too thus deciding which gene variants survive and pass on to new generations (Haviland& Haviland, 2008).
Another interesting force or mechanism influencing genetic variation and evolution is what is commonly referred to as genetic flow. In a nutshell this means some genes are carried from one population to another. It can be similar to the case of migrations resulting to the reproduction of new generations with mixed characteristics from otherwise two different populations. When this continues over time new species come into being.
We have mentioned quite often about natural selection as a mechanism of change. In effect it means, it is a way by which living things produce the most offerings which in turn carry their ancestral genes that gave their parents an upper advantage to survive and breed (Haviland& Haviland, 2008). This happens naturally by way of best adaptability and suitability of individual species to overcome competition and eliminate the weaker breeds.
Natural selection is characterized by a struggle between the species of the population where the superior ones act in a manner to block the weaker species from breeding. A cited example in a herd of buffaloes or cattle; we shall find this tendency where the dominant and superior bull forces to block other bulls from mating with the cows. The intention is to ensure that only the dominant breed passes on their genes to the new generation ( Radolf & Samuels, 2010).
So in conclusion, the process of evolution encompasses several parameters that act naturally but with inter-relation to influence the outcome and emergence of new species over time. The gist is on passing genetic inheritance from generation to generation as well as passing on different combinations of genetic variations within each population. This leads to differentiation in characteristics, survival and reproduction which eventually create a complete shift on the make-up in subsequent genetic pools. Recurrence of the process over a long period of time results into new species evolving.
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