The Power

Ashley Fantz wrote the article “Women gaining political power,” for the CNN political articles in 2008 (Fantz 1). The author uses Shirley Chisholm, the first black woman in the history of the United States to be elected to the US Congress, her political success, to illustrate women’s political struggle in the US history. Quoting Chisholm, the author describes how Chisholm faced immense discrimination for being a woman rather being an African American (Fantz 1). Although marginalized group representation in the US politics has risen over time, the author argues that women representation in the US politics is still unsatisfactory. In the 2008 elections, women constituted 54% of the voters although they have never obtained equal representation in the political arena. However, she notes that the number of women elected to leadership positions had risen from 64% to a record 74% (Fantz 1). Similarly, the author points out that more women were going to obtain appointments into the Obama’s administration to increase their representation. The article finally illustrates how some women politicians had triumphantly defeated some male counterparts becoming the first women representatives in their states. Among these women is Shaheen who became the first New Hampshire female senator and Beverly Perdue who became the first North Carolinas female governor (Fantz 1).

Liberalism

“What is political liberalism?” is an article written by Elijah Weber and published in 2009. The author begins by noting that liberalism in the US and the UK has different synonyms (Weber 1). In the US the term “liberal” refers to a “democrat”, while in the UK the term refers to a “conservative” (Weber 1). Weber suggests that political liberals uphold the preservation of their liberty. In this article, the author illustrates the composition of a political liberal. Among these essentials are neutrality, equality and autonomy. Autonomy, according to Weber, means the aptitude to be self-governed. In this regard, one can be said to be able to accomplish whatever he or she wants to do. The author interprets this concept further to describe that the government, through autonomy, cannot prevent or illegalize any task or activity so long as it does not cause any harm to individuals (Weber 1). The author interpreted the refrain from defining a good life to a person as neutrality. Through neutrality, it is up to an individual to define a good life. Therefore, the government does not play any role in deciding the good life for its citizens. Similarly, the author defines equality as the last component of liberalism. In his writings, Weber suggests that equality is the concept of treating all the citizens of a country equally (Weber 1). As autonomy, the author illustrates that the concept of equality has numerous interpretations. Lastly, Weber illustrates that all liberals are loyal to the concept of neutrality unlike the concepts of autonomy and equality (Weber 1).

Socialism

“Socialism makes people worse,” is an article by Dennis Prager written in 2006. In this article, the author clearly illustrates how socialism turns people from good to worse (Prager 1). To illustrate how socialist societies have negatively affected people, the author cites the recent demonstrations and strikes raging over France (Prager 1). The cause of demonstrations was the new law in France, which allowed companies to terminate the employment of individuals under the age of 26 without any reasonable grounds. The author asserts that this socialist law was a government’s objective to increase the employment rate among young people, something that he actually doubts (Prager 1). Dennis further illustrates that over time, in the world history, social policies have been implemented and passed, and their influence was bleak. Thus to him, these past effects of socialist policies should act as a lesson on how socialism negatively affects people (Prager 1). To exemplify the flaws of the socialist policies, the author illustrates that socialism advocates for citizens to expect everything regardless of their contribution, even minimal. Using American philanthropy as an example, Dennis clearly demonstrates how citizens in the countries that shun socialism take care of their needs rather than depending on their state (Prager 1). Concerning foreign affairs, the author pinpoints how the conservative Spanish government supported the American war by deploying their troops to Iraq and later withdrew, when Spanish socialists took over the government. To exemplify on the socialist individualistic attributes, the author suggests that socialists avoid risking their soldiers’ lives in matters of fighting for another country’s freedom (Prager 1).

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Democracy

“How we can save democracy,” is an article written by Paul Monk in 2012. The article majorly demonstrates how voters worldwide are currently thwarting democracy and it tries to exemplify several ways of salvaging the worsening situation (Monk 1). With the European Union troubles, the author illustrates how voters are attempting to avoid fiscal realities and in return floundering democracy (Monk 1). Noting the current electoral mess in Greece, the author wonders where the world democracy is headed (Monk 1). Similarly, with the François Hollande victory in the French presidential election, the author points out that the world democracy is in dire need of change (Monk 1). To substantiate on his claims, the author points out that the world democratic policies are crumbling to create needed policies to avoid future fiscal threats. Quoting the Russian political intellectual, Vladimir Inozemstev, Paul questions the reliability of liberal democracy in the current world (Monk 1). In addition, Paul demonstrates how ancient democratic leaders of Athens were able to engage successfully with their citizens on healthy public debates something that the current politicians are struggling to maintain. Although the media has been considered as one of the liberating tools to spearhead democracy, the author affirms that the current debates on media have been polarized hence there is a need for more deliberation technologies.

Political parties

“Political parties in the United States” is an article written by John F. Bibby in 2007. The article illustrates the formation and growth of the US political parties from the year 1860 (Bibby 1). It validates that in the early years of the US constitution, the makers of the constitution failed to allocate room for political parties’ contributions in the federal government affairs. In 1800 the US despite the provisions, created political parties mandated to transfer power from one party to another through an election (Bibby 1). The author asserts that from1860 onwards America has had two dominant parties. These are the Republicans and Democrats (Bibby 1). These two parties have enjoyed the most elective positions’ privileges in several posts including the president, congressional representative, state governor and senators. The author compares the US political parties with other democratic countries and notes that these parties have weak internal unity with fewer adherences on their goals (Bibby 1). To illustrate his view, the author demonstrates how Republicans usually advocate for the limitation of federal laws while the democrats tend to take magnanimous approach on issues relating to power. Similarly, the author criticized the two dominant parties for solely shifting their focus on winning the elections and only controlling the government activities rather than majoring on critical government issues. Lastly, the article summarizes its theme by stating the role played by other political parties (third parties) in the US politics (Bibby 1). The author suggests that the third parties only surface before an election and thereafter disappear. Despite the major effects on election outcomes, the third parties face numerous obstacles compromising on their growth and significance.

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Fascism

“What is fascism?” is an article written by Matthew N. Lyons. The article defines the meaning of fascism and demonstrates how the ideology has evolved over time in the world politics (Lyons 1). In his definition the author defines fascism as an ideology or political philosophy that lauds a nation or even a race above all other loyalties (Lyons 1). The author asserts that fascism usually tends to advocate for regenerative power of aggression and often seeks to promote racial dominance which sometimes leads to ethnical executions (Lyons 1). In his writings, Matthew suggests that fascist ideologies clash with Marxism, conservatism and liberalisms ideas yet its practices originate from these three concepts (Lyons 1). The author finally notes dictatorial regimes often foster fascism ideologies.

Legislative relations

“What is the difference between a parliamentary and presidential system of government?” is an article written by M. Dee Dubroff in March, 2012. The article attempts to differentiate between parliamentary and presidential systems of legislature (Dubroff 1). The author affirms that in the parliamentary system chief executives comprise the legislative bodies, whereas in the presidential system the legislative and executive tasks are completely separated limiting the power of both bodies (Dubroff 1). However, the author notes that not all forms of government in the world resemble the scenario. These forms of legislative relations slightly vary from one government to another (Dubroff 1). Another difference noted by the author between the parliamentary and the presidential system is the influence each body has on political acrimony. The article suggests that the two systems may differ in the manner and ways in which the chief executive is removed from power (Dubroff 1).

Conservatism

“Conservative” is an article written by Austine Cline. The article focuses on discussing the political concepts based on conservatism. Austine Cline defines conservatism as referring to political ideas based on the societies’ concepts of preserving their traditional structure, morality, and values (Cline 1). In the article we read that conservative individuals tend to oppose change in the community as they oppose the new ideas. Austine Cline notes that conservatives originate from the human pessimist view of life hence the preference for a conventional system based on individual selfish needs (Cline 1). In addition, the article illustrates how the US conservatives advocate for minimal government authority to allow their traditional morals and values to flourish (Cline 1).

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