The Future of Entertainment
Entertainment industry contributes significantly to the economic development of a country. With the advent of computer technology, the entertainment industry has benefited immensely from this technological progress. The production of song, video and films has become not only easy to make but also to market and sell across the globe. Globalization has the transaction so easy such that it only takes a click of a computer buttons to sell and buy from the internet. In this e-commerce, there are quit a number of challenges experienced. These challenges include cyber threat, internet hacker and cons which take advantages of weak legislation which govern e-commerce and copyright industry.
Stream Everywhere: The Future of Entertainment
Entertainment industry has become on of the biggest foreign exchange earner for many developed and developing world. This has been precipitated with advent of computer and computer software. To ensure that the entertainment industry remains vibrant and dynamic many government have been drafting laws and legislations to govern the operation in the media industry. Towards this, the copyright sector of the industry which govern the production of original work has been working hard to safeguard all the players in the industry. The adoption and use of technology in running of businesses has become more ubiquitous over the last decade as business settings become increasingly transformed. Governments have increasing been benefiting from, tax, employment creation and in general economic growth and development from streaming media in entrainment industry.
The advances in technology and its subsequent incorporation in these firms is grounded on the framework of transforming the business into world-class companies that are in tandem with the fast-changing technological world. The reasons for this are not particularly hard to comprehend given the myriad of benefits that have been associated with the adoption of such technologies. Technological development has come with tremendous improvement in running of business enterprises world over. The advent of computer and computer software has further precipitated the efficient running and development process of businesses. This efficient running of the business is necessitated by computer software. Wheeler & Waggener (2009) explain that computer software consists of programs that control computer hardware (systems software) and programs that help users solve problems (application software). System software consists of operating systems (e.g., DOS, Windows 98, and Linux), device drivers, utilities, and programming languages. Application software consists of a variety of programs that help individuals or groups perform tasks effectively.
Computer application software comprises of several programs that control computer hardware and programs that facilitate the computer to perform a task efficiently upon feeding it with the command. The productivity software as a service underlines applications that are hosted by a vendor and made available to clients over the internet. Commonly referred to as SaaS, it is becoming increasingly popular in that there is a continuous increase in the demand for technologies that support web services. In addition to that, the mature and service-oriented architecture that has demonstrated their worth to satisfy the customers’ unique and continuously becoming complex by the day. This paper takes a critical analysis of productivity software as a service and succinctly dissects its benefits and requirements in a business set up. Towards this, productivity software will also be analyzed and the differences between the tow highlighted.
Online Productivity Toolsfor streaming media businesses
The growing trend today has seen a shift towards the adoption of business tools online (software as a service). This is because some of the online productivity software as a service tools are free and have demonstrated high levels of dependability in comparison to the offline productivity software as a service. “Software as a service, or ‘SaaS’, is a software application delivery model by which an enterprise vendor develops a web-based software application, and then hosts and operates that application over the Internet for use by its customers” (Truitt, 2009). unlike the traditional software vendors or ISV’s, the customer does not need to purchase the software or additional equipment in the form of infrastructure but simply pays for annuity payments for the use of the software.
This is because SaaS has with it the enterprise as opposed to the consumer-oriented web-hosted software that is traditionally known as the web 2.0. The adoption of the SaaS has continued to rise while that of offline productivity has remained flat signaling stiff completion in the coming years. “As SaaS adoption continues to accelerate, traditional software application vendors or ISV’s could face fierce competition from SaaS upstarts looking to steal market share. Over time, they could see their existing customers defect, and prospective new customers balk at their product delivery options (or lack thereof) – resulting in lower revenues, operating margins, and profits” (NIST, 2009).
An analysis of Google Apps application in small businesses “is an excellent tool for small businesses that need their business email, documents, calendars, etc. online. With a little configuration on your domain, you can get Google Apps for your businessand send email using your domain with Gmail as the interface; you can also easily get rid of the irritating “Sent on behalf of” message by changing a couple of settings.” This enables businesses to keep track of the employee’s activities and movements. Other available application on this includes the Google Docs that are shared amongst groups.
The adoption of SaaS has posed a major threat to the existence of traditional software application vendors or the ISV’s. This is because the business industry’s thirst for software application that is convenient to handle, manage and accomplish tasks faster and accurately has continued to rise. Productivity software as a service advanced in the market by global software leaders such as Accenture, Electronic data systems and Microsoft and the existing completion amongst them has seen a vast majority of business today jostle in for better and accurate services. Productivity software as a service that is used by a majority of businesses today comes in different applications form STARLIMS that focus on laboratory data management to Windows operating system and Office productivity software brought by Microsoft.
Major factors Driving SaaS Adoption in Business
It is true that the software market has matured as a result of a continuously maturing Software Company and maturing corporate customers. This was the era of the internet bubble characterized by double-digit to the modern high tech single digit. In addition to the above, the increase in the levels of security measures has accelerated the adoption of SaaS in that advanced methods for user information protection have been put in place. Thirdly, SaaS not only eliminate the costs of continuous licensing bit also leads to a reduction in the costs related to the procurement of infrastructure for the support of new applications. Furthermore, the process of discontinuation or switching off has been described as easier, faster and less costly in comparison to the offline system of productivity.
Integrated productivity software as a service in media industry
This is one software that contains a series of software applications assembled in one unit. This integration makes it easy to access several software applications in one unit. This makes a business to get a series of software application without difficulty of sourcing for individual software. The adoption of productivity software as service contains various services housed within a single unit that makes it efficient in control and operation.
Productivity software as a service in entertainment industry
The SaaS is very closely related to the ASP (application software provider) and the commonly On Demand computing software in their delivery models. The increase in the demand for SaaS is likely to double in the coming years. According to Nelson (2009), “In the software on demandmodel, the provider gives customers network-based access to a single copy of an application created specifically for SaaS distribution; IDC predicts that SaaS will make up 30 percent of the software market by 2007 and will be worth $10.7 billion by 2009″. This figure has been surpassed as per the analysis of the recent statistics on the productivity as a service.
Key factors influencing enterprises in adopting productivity Software-as-a-Service
Organizational Characteristics in adopting productivity software as a service in entertainment industry
The adoption of productivity Software-as-a-Service is strongly pegged on an organization characteristic. This is because in an organization which value technology as an efficient way of doing business will automatically adopt the technologies so as to benefit from economies of scale associated by the application of such technology. According to Mitchell (2010), the recent focus on business process re-engineering highlights the importance of functional integration in operations. While a high level of functional integration may promote easy adoption and implementation, lack of such integration may be viewed as a motivation to develop intranets in order to achieve desired integration levels. Functional integration did not influence intranet adoption and implementation in our case. Universities, by design, have colleges and schools that operate somewhat independently catering to students with specializations in different fields. However, functional integration may be an important antecedent of intranet adoption and implementation in corporate business environments.
The level to which a business is physically dispersed is factors which influence the availability and adoption of new computer technology. McNee (2007) highlights that, intranet development is different from traditional system development efforts, both project management and IS skills are critical for adoption and simple implementation, especially in resolving technical problems encountered in development efforts and in maintenance and enhancement activities.
User characteristics and application is streaming media
The other factor which influences adoption of software as a service in an enterprise is the user behavior and characteristics. The operating culture within an organization greatly influences the type and the extent to which the technology will not only impact on the enterprise but also on the type of technology that will be adopted Horizon Report (2009) gives a very detailed explanation on the user characteristics in stating that, in the context of intranets, user characteristics influencing adoption and implementation include: user involvement, user participation, perceived benefits, usefulness, and information access. User involvement refers to psychological state reflecting “the importance and personal relevance that a user attaches to a given system” (3), user participation refers to the assignments and activities that are performed during development efforts.
Task characteristics of productivity software as a service
Task characteristics of productivity software as a service encompass all the activities that software can undertake at a given particular time. The desire to share information within an organization or enterprise with the aim of successfully completing a given task faster and efficiently is the main reason behind the drive intranet adoption behavior. An analysis of an investigative study carried out by Harris & Smith (2009) on the task characteristics of software revealed that “The need to share information with others to collaborate to accomplish tasks is likely to drive intranet adoption behavior and when no such need exists, there are limited incentives for/to end-users to adopt intranets”
Technology characteristics of productivity software as a service in media industry
Different types of technologies come along with unique and different characteristics. The underline factors in the adoption of software technology as productivity software as a service is to understand the technology characteristics. Business managers point to the fact that technology characteristics are best adopted when they conform to the business or enterprise characteristics. This point is well illustrated by Gartner (2009) in stating that, the underlying attributes of the technology itself can have a tremendous impact on propagation of IT innovations. In the context of intranets, we focus on extent of networking, ease of use/navigation, security, and server performance. First, the extent of networking in the organization is a relevant variable as it determines the degree to which individual computers have the ability to share information and communicate with other computers. From intranet standpoint, creating a networked environment is central to its existence. In organizations that exhibit high level of networking, intranet adoption and implementation is relatively an easy transition. On the other hand, less networked in organizations may have greater motivation to adopt and implement intranets
The cost of productivity software as a service installation amongst business organizations
The use of productivity software as a service in institutions and business enterprises has taken a new dimension in recent years with majority of the business making concerted efforts at promoting software adoption that seeks to enhance productivity in running of their business. As earlier delineated, this is intended at promoting the smooth running of business and it is aimed at being in tandem with the changes in the technological world today. It is seen that business enterprises need to be conversant with the developments in technology, given that these new ventures have also come to be the pinnacle of modern business trend. In essence, this prepares them for the modern day business environments. In the attempt to achieve these noble objectives, businesses are incurring heavy expenses in installing software. From the initial review of literature, a disconnect would appear to be the case though in the sense that while majority of enterprises are prepared to incur these costs, the software remain largely underutilized by employees and customers.
Lack of infrastructural development
Infrastructure remains one of the most impediments to IT development in most businesses in developing country. Firms incur a lot of expenses in terms of cost of installation and maintenance of software which are applied for data processing and data management in the business enterprises. Infrastructure lays down the required installation in institution, schools, and business and so on. When a country has got a well infrastructural development necessary for ICT, it becomes easy and moderately cheap for an enterprise to adopt the use of technology in carrying out its operation unlike a situation where poor infrastructural development leads to high costs. In addition to the above, taking full advantages of the productivity software as a service has been a challenge in that most business managers are not full trained in understanding the full benefits of productivity software as a service
IT Operation Benefits
Increased Accuracy of Budgeting and reporting and reporting
The most commonly stated merit associated with the use of SaaS software in running a business is that it enabled these businesses to accurately plan and for their operations. SaaS comes with a number of added capabilities such as calendars,
Reduction of helpdesk incidents
Many of the organizations surveyed have experienced significant reductions in the number of helpdesk incidents and support requirements related to software, particularly in the area of information sharing. This has enhanced better work coordination with colleagues at work place.
“Obviously, an expected key benefit of SAM is that it will help enterprises to ensure that they are compliant with licensing requirements, and better software license management is certainly a cited benefit of the solution” (Blokdijk (2010). This is expected to increase the current level of license compliance in organizations and enterprises and enhance the capacity of the government of institute licensing laws and legislations.
Technology characteristics play a central role in the determination the rate at which businesses and institutions adopt the use of software for data processing and storage. Available literatures abide to the fact that technology which is difficult and complex to understand experience a low penetration rate in the market. On the other hand easily understood technology receives a high rate of penetration in the market. Most existing companies thus adopt soft wares that their employees are trained in operating or those that are not complex to operate so as to minimize on the costs of training.
Pace of innovation
Software application and its market penetration is generally rapid globally. The rate of innovation in computer and software development is very rapid. This pace is very good since it tries to improve on the compute modern challenges. The thirst for faster and efficient softwares that have the capacity to process huge volumes of data and still remain accurate has continued to date. Manufacturers of the technological softwares are in continuous research to balance between affordable price and customer satisfaction.
Type of business and confidentiality of information
Companies and business which deal with very sensitive information normally has the tendencies of slow rate use of software which they still don’t trust their credibility. The nature of information make them skeptical to embrace the use of a given new software package to use n their data processing and storage.
Benefits of the use of software in Business
Increased employ productivity and continuity of business
Available literature illustrate that the efficiency gain emanating form improved service to uses. According Blokdijk (2010),
In contrast, a clear example of how the absence of SAM had a significant financial downside was the example in one organization where employee misuse of software led to an Internet Worm being downloaded that led to an entire factory plant being shut down for one and half days. The company incurred significant expediting charges to minimize delay in delivering customers’ orders, and lost some follow-on business. Non-stop operation of the manufacturing plants has since been recognized by this company’s management as a flow-on benefit of its software asset management program.
In reality, an expected key benefit of SAM is that it will help enterprises to ensure that they are compliant with licensing requirements, and better software license management is certainly a cited benefit of the solution. Several of the respondents commented that they have been able to reduce the incidence of over-licensing.
Information security is very fundamental to the development of a company, towards this a company or a business enterprise. McNee (2007) expounds this point stating that,
Data sets consisting of so much, possibly sensitive data, and the tools to extract and make use of this information give rise to many possibilities for unauthorized access and use. Much of our preservation of privacy in society relies on current inefficiencies. For example, people are monitored by video cameras in many locations – ATMs, convenience stores, airport security lines, and urban intersections.
Investigation methods: terrorism and cybercrime in entertainment industry.
Cyber-threats and warfare is an issue not only in the United States but also in the rest of developed nations. According to Cavelty (2008), “the threat posed by cyber-threats calls for greater understanding of the context in which they occur”. The author supposes that in order to get an insight into the cyber-threat and warfare, we need to understand the concept of what he refers to as “information revolution”. There are vast problems faced by the information industry in form of cyber-crimes and hacking, subjecting the information techniques to cyber-threats and warfare. This has created a new modern warfare prompting a number of nations to formulate policies geared towards combating such attacks. In a bid to protect the international community which lacks an international law to curb cyber-threats and warfare, it is therefore logical for United States and other nations to adjust their native law to deal with this new challenge. It has become generally impossible for cyber-crime offenders to be charged with violation of business ethics in regard to cyber-crimes due to lack of legal guidance on matters pertaining this issue. This paper focuses on the need to re-assess the state of information system and come up with recommendations that would make this achievable. This will follow after brief information on what these threats are and their repercussions in the information industry.
Cyber-Threats and Warfare and investigation approaches
The question on whether the investigations in these areas of cyber crime and terrorism to remain incident driven or to adopt strategic approach are still is of great concern to the security agencies and the general public as a whole. However, it is prudent to note that governments and all security agencies should be vigilant at all times. Towards this it is good to adopt investigations which have got strategic approach. This will ensure that the government and all the security agencies are better prepared to control these crimes.
Ways in which crime analysis and investigative practice achieve positive outcomes with terrorism and cyber crime
Research and investigation are fundamental in the fight against terrorism and cybercrime. Towards this, data collected on the prevalence of these crimes, their occurrences possibility are normality used to tighten security measure before the crime is done. For instance, there are policies which govern internet financial transaction which protect the people from being coned.
The second way in which investigations are yielding positive results is that security agencies use the data from investigations to plan security measure which not only protect the people but also destroy the criminals and their criminal activities. In this regard, the security agencies are able to find out the hide out of criminals and destroy them before they strike.
The demand for better human security and human rights is in higher demand now than ever before and the international community needs to undertake a new paradigm of human security. This is because security has continued to change since the advent of state security in the 17th Century. Today’s global trade, movement of goods and services are interlinked to the aspect of human security. Human beings as a race share a planet, a biosphere and exist because social fabric that put the different races, colors, religions, beliefs and backgrounds together. This is because the security and fundamental rights of a single member of the human community, security of a nation, a region or state is influenced by the decision of others. According to Bruno (2008), “The objective of human security is to safeguard the vital core of all human lives from critical pervasive threats, in a way that is consistent with long-term human fulfillment”. This paper takes a comprehensive and critical analysis of human right at the international perspective and further looks on the improvements which have been made on the issue. I strongly believe that much of improvements have been made on human rights protection world wide, however much of these improvements need to be made
According to Bruno (2008), “the most published hacks in the computer industry was the attack on Estonia paperless government but this is just a reflection of what happens behind the scenes without being noticed”. The author reports that Cyber Defense Agency’s president and information systems expert, among others are concerned about this issue. The United States, Israel, Pakistan, and India have been responsible for attacks on adversaries with China been the most notorious. Through hacking it is now possible to retrieve crucial government data and this causes ripples among US, Britain, France, among other nations. The motive of China hacking has shifted from protecting networks from possible attacks to the new phenomenon of offensive mitigations of against adversary webs. China on the other hand has shifted the blame from their government and blames the practice on individual rogue citizens. Today the larger international community accuses the Chinese launching new tactics of effecting complex cyber attacks.
On the other hand, the US has also been a victim of offensive cyber-warfare. Bruno (2008) asserts that defense analyst; William Arkin, confesses the ability of the US administration of accessing their foes’ computer networks and explore their communication system so as to alter digital information. There was leaked information that Network Attack Support Staff formation in 2004 was a measure to realign the forces’ ability for cyber attack. A senior military officer explained that the move was aimed at creating an interface between intelligence department and the combatants’ commanders. The US military has launched systems that are able to penetrate and jam networks of others; for instance, the airborne Suter system that can invade other territories’ communication systems and even take over. This makes it possible for the radar system of a particular territory being unable to detect an approaching aircraft.
The tactics employed by computer hackers are not complex but have the ability to bring down an entire system’s administration. Hacking that brought down the Estonian network down started with a number of messages directed to government servers. This tactic harnesses a large pull of interconnected information system and bombards a potential target network with requests while on the other hand making it impossible for location of the attacker. This made it possible for the hackers to take charge of a number of computers and directed the information to the administration’s servers without the knowledge of their users. Though this tactic was a simple one, it was almost untraceable. In addition, there is a tactic that involves a malicious program attached to a computer to store information without the knowledge of owner. This software then sends the stored information to PCs at the Pentagon mainframes. The most feared cyber-crimes through are those directed at crucial infrastructural systems; for instance the control systems of banks, nuclear plants, among others. The ability of hackers to penetrate the electronic systems of industries makes it possible for them to shut down operations.
“These threats posed by cyber-crime are real and bear great consequences to the infrastructure making; and, is a major concern for the US administration” Valivev, 2007). Despite the threats and vulnerability of information systems, there has been laxity in curbing the threat until recently that it has been perceived by the intelligence communities and the security system as a real problem. The challenges of dealing with cyber-crimes start right from the definition of cyber-threat. This coupled with the adverse economic losses that could arise from electronic hacking and security uncertainty due to breaching of security regulation by hackers calls for effective measures of dealing with cyber-threats and warfare. Stolfo, Bellovin and Hershkop (2008) concurs with this statement by asserting that the impacts of hacking to the financial industry are great and real following a workshop organized by joint event by the Dartmouth College and Information Security Departments; Columbia University .
Recommendations for Curbing Cyber-Threats and Wars
To curb cyber-threats and warfare, the US, EU and NATO worked together in order to come up with an agreement that would create standards of cyber-defense. According to Cordesman (2002), “the 41-nation Council of Europe drafted a pact that was endorsed by the US. This document was drafted in and released in 2000 seeking to address the issues arising from cyber-crimes”. The United States took part in the drafting the document for almost two years and after the convention was to be further scrutinized by Steering Committee on European Crime Problems then handed over to Committee of Ministers. The document was later to be opened before the member states and the US as an observer nation for signature. The draft contained a number of recommendations for dealing with cyber-threats and warfare five of which are discussed below.
The first recommendation made in the document is that each party will adopt legislative measures and other measures that would make partial or whole intentional access to computer systems punishable under domestic law. The recommendation further stipulates that the domestic law considers it an offense any infringement to security measures, or accessing a computer system that is connected to another information system. In relation to establishment of domestic law, the US has taken steps to institute law that criminalizes cyber-crime offenses with perpetrators considered at par with terrorists. This is because according to Linden (2007),
Cyber terrorism entails the use of cyberspace to instigate terrorism attacks against computer systems and access to information data that can intimidate or coerce an administration’s duty of delivering its social, economic, or political obligations. These actions as noted by the author can result to loss of life, severe economic loss, contamination, and plane crashes; hence, cyber-crimes is equivalent to terrorist attacks.
The House of Representative and the Senate passed legislation that would target to subject offenders to life imprisonment for risking lives of citizens by via manipulation of computer systems. These measures were contained in the 2001 Cyber Security Enhancement Act (CSEA). Under the same legislation, all business entities are required to be sufficiently equipped with security architecture properly layered and trenched. “Whenever a layer or tranche is violated, the entire source of valuable database and control capabilities are to be critically looked into for compromises” (Intelligence Unit, 2004). All reforms in legislation begin with policy setting to address the current state of affairs; for instance the setting up of US Federal Trade Commission to curb new spamming besides building evidence, and adoption of new efforts through offering training, (Internet Society). This legislative measures set by the United States, European and other developing nations is the first step towards restoring sanity in the cyberspace; therefore, I regard this recommendation the mostly crucial in curbing cyber-threats and warfare.
Secondly, the all Party to the agreement is to adopt legislative measures and other measures that would make it necessary to establish competent administrators with powers to curb cyber-threats and warfare. These authorities are to be given power to carry criminal investigations and hearings in search of offenses and while on duty, the authorities should have right to access computer systems. The information retrievable by the established authority include partial or whole access to computer systems and data contained therein, and to access a computer-data base medium provided the system is in its territory. According to Intelligence Unit (2004), “the threats of cyber-crimes can be curbed by through collective defenses but would outsmart offenders’ ability to initiate a cyber-crime.” The defense mechanism has been concerned with securing trade channels and pathways to markets. According to Fischer and Nickell, (1999),
The world trade today is driven by digitally transacted money/e-money in tune of trillions of Dollars; the need for establishing counter-attack forces to curb is eminent to secure the safety of money transmitted digitally. The counter-attack forces must get government backing to deal with rogues and politically backed computer attacks emerging from espionage or otherwise across the globe.
In addition to the second recommendation above, counter-attach measures can be instigated through mobilization of resources; for instance, investment on interoperable channel of distribution of management knowledge. Through proper analysis system it will be easy to share data among different intelligence bodies in search of cyber-crime offender. Investment in public intelligence world wide is crucial in the sense that the breeding ground of cyber-crimes is cyber cafes that are under permanent watch of the local citizens. This measure calls for the redistribution of expertise and proficiencies of counter cyber-crime and warfare technologies through creation of national centers dealing with digital defense. “The redistribution of expertise and proficient cannot be achieved with laxity in sharing cohesive ability to counter cyber-threats and warfare” (Sachar, 2004). For sustainability of reliability of future counter-attack forces, focus has to be laid in SME systems at times of complex cyber-crime offences or malware attacks. The effectiveness of the second recommendation will depend on the developing a transnational strategy with global appeal other that the drafted document by the Convention to protect the US, UE and other developing nations. “This is due to the fact that cyber-crime is initiated in the cyberspace available to all citizens in every corner of the world” (Gercke, 2010). Therefore the objective of the Convention’s resolutions should move towards enticing the global sphere.
The third recommendation that is vital to curbing cyber-crime is the establishment of inter-Parties legislations that would allow a Party within its jurisdiction to set domestic law that would allow another Party to access information, without prior request, that it considers vital in unraveling a cyber-crime offense in its territory. Upon such agreement, there is exercise of mutual cooperation between or among Parties under the chapter of this recommendation. According to CCRC (2005) “the achievement and viability of inter-States’ cooperation was highlighted following UN’s 6th workshop dubbed “Measures to combat computer-related crime.” The workshop listed among others recommendations, that nations develop further international cooperation at all level. The UN (United Nation) given its international character called for coordination of internal mechanisms proposed by the General Assembly, to aid intergovernmental duties aimed at protection of cyberspace to shield it from the activities of cyber-crime offenders. In addition, the workshop recommended that all nations review their legislative laws to adapt accordingly to a given nature of cybercrime. “The proposals by UN was effected when India resolved to enact 10 years imprisonment of cyber-crime offenders and a further $14,300 penalty on breaking into computer networks” (Chakraborty, 2009).
Fourthly, the Convention recommended extradition between States for cyber offenses as established in the Articles 2-11 of the document; as long as they are the crimes are punishable under the legislative laws of the two Parties. The provision provides that where extradition treaty or an alternative legislation contradicts each other in regard to penalty for extradition, the minimum penalty applies as contained in the treaty or reciprocal alternative would instead be considered. According to Yar (2006), this was a just move given the repercussions of the 9/11 attack in the US. Following the attack, the US administration had to seek for international cooperation in dealing with cyber-terrorists who castigated the attacks. It was on the basis of international legislation between the US government and Afghanistan that made the launch of search of suspected terrorists believed to be in the territory. (Harsh), concurs with this view by asserting that Information Technology Act should be applicable to all persons irrespective of nationality as long as the rules are broken.
Lastly, “the Convention recommended that mutual assistance be given by Parties in relation to real-time traffic data collection evident in some specific communications within a territory and is transmitted with the aid of computer system” (Siegel, 2008). For effective governance of this provision, the authenticity of domestic law will play an important role in defining conditions and procedures deemed necessary. As a reactionary measure, States have taken steps to involve the corporate world in providing cyber -crime counter attack measures by providing tools and services that would provide surveillance and censorships. “Among the corporate bodies that have so far aided in this measure include China and US firms; for instance Cisco, Microsoft, Yahoo, Google, among others” (Deibert, 2008).
From the investigations above, it is evident that cyber-threats and warfare are serious global challenges that the modern world faces. Recommendations have been made but the effects of such legislations are yet to be experienced. National administrations should pull together ideas in a way to tackle the challenges of cyber-crimes in collaborative way. It however noted that the efforts of the Convention are just but the beginning of a long way to go. They will ensure that cyber-crimes are checked. This war will be won when al stakeholders come together and with persistent and rigorous measures, it is possible that the adverse effects of cyber-crimes will finally be put to rest