The Collapse of the Mongol Empire
The Mongolian empire was one of the greatest empires during the period between the 13th and 15th century (Craughwell, 2010). The empire covered most post parts of Asia extending from Eastern Europe to Southeast Asia. Due to its extensive coverage across Asia, the empire is considered as one of the most influential empires in the world history. According to the historian, the empire covered 16 percent of the earth’s surface and had a population of more than 100 million people (Craughwell, 2010). Under the rule of Genghis Khan, the empire’s territories traded in technologies, ideologies, and commodities leading to its rapid expansion across Asia. Despite its successful expansion, the empire economic reputation declined in the 14th century because of several factors including the struggle for power and clashing of the social and cultural values among various kingdoms under the Empire. Various internal factors that affected the empire contributed to the continuing lack of cohesion in the Empire and its eventual downfall (Craughwell, 2010).
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By 1260, disputes over the succession and leadership of the empire were the main challenge facing the Empire. The Mongols basic social unit was the tribe. Therefore, the empire vast expanse including other tribes made it difficult for the Mongols to remain loyal to the empire that went beyond their tribe. As a result, the empire gradually divided into several subdivision and fragmentation. In the year 1294, the empire had subdivided into four sub-empires with each having vested interest and goals. The sub-empires comprised of the Chagatai Khanate, IIkhate, Golden Horde Khanate, and the Yuan reign. The creation of the IIkhanids was due to the military’s exploits under the watchful eye of Hulegu who had commanded the destruction of the Abbasid reign in the region.
Another main social factor that spearheaded the fall of the Mongol Empire was the clash of different cultural values, activities, and religion across the Empire. The change in Mongols’ cultural pattern overtime fueled fragmentations in the empire. It became significantly difficult for Empire’s leadership to oversee the attainment of various objectives. Moreover, the Empire’s expansive territories made it difficult to embrace one religion. The different areas and tribes adopted varied foreign religions leading to the dissolution of the Mongols cohesiveness.
The Mongols military skills, organization techniques and courageous prowess had allowed them to conquer other tribes with ease. With the adoption of the alien cultures from the conquered regions, the Empire witnessed a decline a declined in tits various traditions that had previously contributed to its success. As the empire expanded its territories, cultural dilemma was inevitable considering that the Mongols conquered people who refused to adopt their culture. With these cultural dilemmas, the military lost their lust for conquest. Without continued expansion, the empire lost its dominance and subsequently collapsed.
Religious factors also contributed significantly to the collapse of this vast Empire
Mongols culture swiftly eroded due to the conversion to Islam and Buddhism. Religious commitments led to the defeat of the Chinese who persistently clung to the Confucian thoughts. Likewise, before the 13th century the Empire’s domain was too large for the Mongol officials to administer. This resulted in the formation of small empires that eventually led to the downfall of the empire (Craughwell, 2010).
Another factor attributed to the collapse of the Mongol Empire is the Black Death. In 1328, the plaque broke out in China and spread across the Mongol Empire (Robison, 2009). It progressively spread to the Mongol trade routes leading to the decline in trade as the fatal disease adversely affected the traders. Consequently, Mongol’s income decline as the paralyzed commercial endeavors affected the Mongols cities and their army cavalries that heavily relied on their revenues. In addition, the Mongol population significantly declined due to the disease as the military leaders and the civilians succumbed to it. Several disputes have arisen regarding the Mongols responsibility for the spread of the plaque (Robinson, 2009). In the analysis of the Mongol Empire, claims have arisen that the Mongols considerably facilitated the spread of the disease through their trade routes. In Europe, the disease caused massive deaths consequently leading to an era of learning and discovery. During this era, western the Europe power and influence expanded at the expense of the Mongols declining power resulting in the shift of the world power from east Eurasia to West Eurasia (Robinson, 2009). This played a significant role in the world history as it led to the fall of the Mongol dynasty and the death of millions of people in Asia and Europe.
The Mongols conquest left the Islamic world in chaos as they destroyed several Islamic civilizations and their learning centers. The Mongol system of ruling denied power to the locals and fostered brutal force and intimidation to those in opposition. All these factors coupled with several internal factors contributed to the failure in the Mongol ruling system resulting in the Empire’s downfall. By the 15th century, the power vacuum created by the decline of the Mongol Empire led to the emergence of new contenders across the territories previously governed by the Mongols (Robinson, 2009). Among these were the Ottomans Empire, Safavid Empire in Persia and the Mughal Empire in India. These three empires established across the entire Islamic world in Asia. The new post Mongol states attracted more followers than the Mongol empire and quickly replaced the Mongols significance in the region (Robinson, 2009).
The establishment of the Ottoman Empire occurred in the mid 14th century because of the collapse of the Mongols influence in the Islamic world (Robinson, 2009). It was the first of the three empires. During the reign of Osman, the Ottomans defeated several rivals and waged holy wars against Christians Byzantines. Equally, under his rule the Ottomans were fully aware of the woes that befell the Mongol dynasty hence established a different ruling system that comprised of the educated urbanites. The Sultan had mandate over both the military and civilian bureaucracies.
The founding of the Safavid Empire occurred in the late 15th century (Robinson, 2009). The empire established from the smoldering remains of Mongols conquest. Across Persia, the Mongols administrative rule was considered destructive and offensive as it deployed the Jews and Christians leaders as administrators in the Muslim world. With the collapse of the Mongol Empire in the 15th century, Persian territories underwent a lot of chaos as several religions fought over followers while leaders fought for influence (Robinson, 2009). These led to the formation of the Persian state under the leadership of Shah Ismail who killed those in opposition to his rule. During his reign, the Safavids opposed diversity conforming to the principles of theocratic regimes unlike the Mongols. Consequently, the Safavids ruling system led to their decline unlike the Ottomans.
When the Mongols reached India, they encountered a lot of resistance from the Delhi Sultanate army forcing them to retreat. Thereafter, the Delhi Sultanate expanded his territories stretching as far as the Mongol territories. The Mughals unlike the Mongols brought along significant changes in their empire. They successfully centralized their government enhancing the ease of governance and uniting several smaller kingdoms. Similarly, the Mughals government recognized and acknowledged all human rights, culture, and religions across its kingdoms. This led to a cohesive kingdom with efficient administrators and thus prosperity unlike the Mongols dynasty.