This research paper also provides the guidelines, which will aid in the determination and setting of objectives, development of strategies, and identification of the relevant planning activities, which are required for the implementation of water services in the above-mentioned places. Engineers and the concerned stakeholders are always supposed to be aware of both organizational and social constraints associated with the provision of water in residential and industrial areas. The issues related to such constraints must, therefore, be well addressed in any given water supply project’s objectives, while putting in mind that the arrangements regarding sanitation for all people in such communities are duly given worthwhile considerations in the entire process. When supplying water in both industrial and residential areas, the principles of appropriateness, efficiency, affordability, effectiveness, and sustainability should always be kept uppermost (Lazarova et al., 2013).
The importance of promoting hygiene in water supply in residential and industrial areas
The major reason of programmes aimed at improving the water supply and also sanitation is to enhance health. It should be noted that merely providing water and related infrastructure for sanitation cannot actually improve the health conditions in a particular place. As a result, in order to ensure that maximum benefits are reaped from any given water supply in both residential and industrial areas, then individuals need to be supported with the relevant information, which will ensure that such benefits are well-enhanced. Such information, coupled with imparting of the relevant knowledge and skills, is what is referred to as “hygiene education”.
Given the fact that both water supply and sanitation instruments are normally subject to breakdown, non-use, and misuse, national governments and international donors as well have now recognized that the sustainability of such systems becomes of the uttermost importance. It is, therefore, prudent for the communities living in both industrial and residential areas to adopt safe hygiene practices that will make it possible for them to fully realize or achieve the water supply and sanitation enhancement health benefits. Education and hygiene promotion is, therefore, the key action in an effort aimed at the achievement of these vital health benefits.
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Planning in the water supply
The provision of water to the communities in both residential and industrial areas must follow the same procedures as in any given project right from the initial conceptualization of the project up to its completion. For instance, the water supply project will have to undergo the identification and preparation stages, which involve pre-investment and planning processes. During the approval stage, the decision makers ascertain whether or not the water supply project is capable of becoming a reality, and during implementation, the completion of detailed designs is done and other activities, such as staff training and building and commissioning of the project facilities are also undertaken. During the operation stage, there is the integration of the existing systems in order to provide the services, which are enhanced. In the evaluation stage, which is the final one, the lessons learnt are ascertained to ensure that any future projects that will be undertaken are accordingly improved.
There should always be the assessment of the technical guidelines during the context of the operational goals, which are set in the water supply. On the other hand, the process of planning should lead to the production of the reports, which are capable of defining the objectives and the purpose of the water supply in residential and industrial places or areas. This is because the availability of such reports actually acts as an overall guideline, and also aids in both selection and generation of alternative technologies, which could be utilized in providing water supply. The communities to be served should, therefore, be duly involved or engaged in the entire planning process of water supply.
The communities in both residential and industrial areas should be involved in all he stages of planning, implementation, and even maintenance of the water supply project through the independent community committees. The technologies involved in the water supply for the residential and industrial areas should always be cost-effective.
Water supply options
At most times, the water supply terminals are normally categorized as being either public or private installations. Communal or public installations are those ones, which the general public and the entire community as well have access to. The supply of water to industrial and residential areas will depend on the various factors, such as, for instance, the chosen method of cost recoveries, affordability of the water supply systems by the users and the agency, unit costs to the final end users, and long-term maintenance needs. Water supply may include the rudimentary systems, which are also known to fall under the communal or public water supply terminals.
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Design criteria for water supply
In most instances, water storage and distribution or supply are the most expensive parts of any given water supply scheme project. As a result, a good design in the water supply to both residential and industrial areas can normally lead to the significant cost savings for the entire project. Some of the elements, which are involved in the water supply and storage systems, are bulk water transmission or supply systems, bulk storage reservoirs, intermediate storage reservoirs, distribution or supply networks, and terminal consumer connections or installations. Water demand is normally dependent on the areas’ historical consumption. In the circumstances, where there is a lack of records regarding water consumption, the current “consumption per capita” is used in estimating through making consultations with the residents. An enhanced supply estimate can be achieved through the study of current water supply systems in both the industrial and residential areas.
Hydraulic Formulae used for sizing the components
In sizing pipeline components, any hydraulic formulae that are recognized may be used. At most times, pipelines have emerged as being the most common forms used in the supply or transmission of water in both residual and industrial places. However, aqueducts, tunnels, and canals may also be used in water supply. Water supply or transmission conduits may normally need considerable investments in capital and thus all the technical options linked costs should be evaluated carefully when choosing best solutions in each specific case. The use of pipelines will also imply that there are short transmission distances and minimum water loss. It should also be noted that the use of canals will actually lead to longer distances in transmission, higher losses, and low quality of water, because of algal growth. Despite of that due to the labour intensive constructions and lower costs, this option may actually prove to be more attractive. Water is capable of being transported either through pumping or through gravity; the latter is always preferred.
The basic requirements in Pipeline design
When designing pipelines, the statistic pressure should always be kept as low as possible through the reduction of pressure using valves and in break pressure tanks. In order to avoid the occurrence of the air pockets, the number of both low and high points should be minimized through the contour lines, as opposed to tracks or roads. In order to reduce the number of the air valve releases, there must be a variation in depth of the pipeline, so as to avoid low and high points.
Given the fact that the costs associated with transmission or supply of water are normally more sensitive towards the total length of the installed pipes rather than the pipes’ diameter, it is always advantageous to design the transmission systems, which are capable of meeting ultimate capacities. The velocities in the water pipes should, therefore, not exceed 1.2 m/s, but they should be about 0.6 m/s, while the velocities in special fittings should never exceed 6 m/s.
Measurement Technology in Water Supply
One of the most commonly adopted approaches towards the end use measurements were for the collection of high-resolution records of water that could be disaggregated into single water use through the events like “Trace Wizard” water analysis tools.
The use of water tankers
The operational costs, which are incurred in supplying water through the use of a tanker, are actually high; however, the use of delivery vehicles and tank sizes should only be given consideration when conducting a feasibility study. As for the storage of water, balancing requirements should always be met and ensure that all emergencies, such as, for instance, planned shutdowns and fire-fighting, are well catered for. On the other hand, the balancing volume must be kept in order to cater for the peak outflows when a variable or a constant is being received.
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Measurement of residential and industrial water supply and usage
It is always prudent for the organizations involved in supplying water to both residential and industrial water usages to undertake major research projects aimed at measuring the use of the supplied water. One of the most vital requirements for the economic supply system lies in the location of the source of water. Indeed, in the water supply distribution, the maximum head that is required during the period of articulation when under the static conditions should never exceed 90 m, while the minimum size of the pipes should never be less than 50 mm in its internal diameter. Main reticulation pipes must be sized in order to suit the design period in the water supply.
When supplying water to residential places and industrial areas, it is always advisable to use or utilize the minimum number and different size of pipes in order to hold the stock, which is needed for both repairs and maintenance. Whenever possible, it is always recommended that the pipes should always be laid in the road reserves, and most preferably, they should never pass through any privately owned or residential properties, and any pipelines supplying water in both residential and industrial areas should actually be protected. In the circumstances, where there is a need for the water supplies or pipelines to cross over the roads, then extreme care should be taken in order to ensure that such connections are laid at sufficient depths and that they are well embedded. In addition to that, it is always advisable to actually keep a larger diameter pipe in order to cater for the road crossings, as opposed to the considerations made during designs.
It should always be kept in mind that the provision of effective water supply in both residential and industrial areas is not the responsibility of the water engineers, but rather, it is a collective responsibility of all the stakeholders. There is, therefore, the need for each party to play its role effectively to ensure that the water supplied in residential and industrial places serves the purposes that they were intended to.