The present paper can be subdivided into five main points. At first, the author (Sigmund Freud) states the main features of two serious mental disorders: mourning and melancholia. Sigmund Freud calls melancholia the state of depression that has been put forward by the scientists. The mourning caused by lost of beloved ones, lost of some precious things characterized by the drop of mood and spirit. The state of melancholia accompanies by the drop of not only the psychological strength and mood but also by the deterioration of the physical state. After the statement of these two concepts, the author proceeds to go deeper about the depression and the main characteristics of it. He tries to define the cause of such state. The author comes to conclusion, that the cause for it is similar to the mourning but with the far much higher extent of influence to the individual. Then the Sigmund Freud tries to compare these two concepts, revealing the similarities and differences.
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All descriptions are based on the examples of the reaction of people and their egos. The ultimate aim here is to define the causes of such reactions. However, without that, the author can only suggest and put forward the idea of narcissism and ego ideal. So the depression deals with these two concepts which are subject to the various human feelings such as: love, hatred, sadistic feelings and other strong affects. Self-reproaches during the depression can cause the higher development of the sadistic feeling that can lead to suicide. If we deal with the mourning we cannot call it mental disease, but dealing with depression it will be reasonable to treat as a real derangement of the individual.
In the conclusion of the presented paper, the author stated that the lack of the data and possibilities to investigate deeper the nature of the human’s psychology prevent any further statement and researches but in time it will be subjected to the research.