The authorities which are directly involved with providing guidelines in building and property development include the commissions of the commonwealth, State Government, Local Government, quasi-government boards, as well as, private sector organizations. These authorities deal with water supply, gas supply, scaffolding regulations, communication network, and local municipal council (Vicky 1-7).
Before any preparation on the site, clearing should be done in order for it to be suitable for workflow. Site preparation comprises both the clearing of the site as well as setting out of the building and quarry designed for the footing. Site clearing involves cutting of the under bush and trees over the area designed for the building and the removal of roots and any tree limbs. Checking with the local authority should be done for the purpose of finding out whether there is any old or existing water gas or sewer lines passing near the building site. It is also advisable to use a bulldozer to remove the topsoil and finding out whether the quality is good for later use in landscaping. In case of a sloppy land, Creation of a level platform is needed while a steep land should be levied to the estimated building area. There are two types of excavation. The first type is called bulk excavation which involves the clearance of a level area for the building and it is usually done by a bulldozer or traced loader type vehicle. The other type, specific or footing excavation, is carried out by a backhoe or shovel. For footing excavation to take place, the building must be set out in its proper place with respect to site building alignments so that trench excavation for footing can proceed.
Amenities of the site office are checked properly. Types of the amenities needed in the site are. Change rooms are provided when the type or location of the work or workers require clothes to be changed. Meal rooms which are be provided in adequate numbers. Suitable tables and seating are provided for eating meals, Toilets should be clearly marked whereby separate toilets are provided for male and female, washing facilities should be provided with adequate cleaning water and cleaning agents, Showers are present depending with the type of work done at the site. , Drinking water should be near the working stations and Stores which are provided for employees for the purpose of storing there hand tools, tables, bookshelves, first aid kit and cleaning equipments. The materials needed at the site should be ordered by the site manager and the records kept for future reference.
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Before the goods are offloaded at the site, the contractor should be there in order for him or her to check the quality and whether the goods delivered, are in good shape. The goods are supposed to be kept under tight security whereby adequate fencing and lockable storage is provided. Goods should be stored a few meters from the building area for safety purposes. When materials are needed in the working site, two signatories (from the supervisor and contractor) are needed to allow movement of the goods from the store to the working site.
Job scheduling is prepared during the commencement of the job and it entails listing the sequence of events and projecting both the time and income to be utilized. In case of job changes, the resultant adjustments are recorded and the site superintendent is expected to inform the site supervisor who in turn check the responsibility associated with the contract before issuing payments. Job costing is compared when there are extensions in the time stipulated before the commencement of the job, when there are changes in the sequence of work and when the time allocated for the contract program is prolonged. In case of the happenings, the site superintendent receives the compensation claims as stipulated in the contract. In order to minimize this occurrence from happening again, it’s stipulated that the site contractor be mandated with all the responsibility of overseeing the job. Site meetings are at first established to involve only the Principal Contractor and Company key personnel, later the meetings are broken down to include client’s representative, Architect and Engineers. The meetings are documented in form of minutes which are recorded by a competent person who then distributes copies of the minutes to the people concerned. Lead up meetings are held prior to the commencement of a contract and minutes concerning the ordering of materials and the control procedures for the job are recorded. The written safety plans include the site contractor allowing for more than two gates to be established for the purpose of exiting. The public is protected from the falling objects and the site superintendent is expected to put signage at a visible place where the public can be warned of potential dangers. A complete first aid kit must be implemented at the site for the purpose of providing emergency services in case of accidents.
According to the Certificate IV Building and Construction (35), the documents needed in a site include the site minutes which are kept on file with several report instructions issued on the site by the client, memos which are made of brief internal reports from the site to the main office and variation submission which are kept in a file for variation orders. It is wise to have the details of the documents confirmed when the project is at its terminal stages. The documents are then stored safely in case of future disputes within the contractual agreement.
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The Site inspections needed to be carried out before commencement of the project include the ones which are made prior to the tendering, council inspections carried out by approved professionals, E.P.A and Services Inspections, plumbing inspections, inspections carried out by unions, the inspection which is carried out by the client and lastly the quality assurance inspection. The inspections are carried out prior to the commencement of the project and are done by site contractors with accredited consultants as overseers. The inspections are carried out and then documented for future references. There are several forms which are used for the documentation purpose and they include the job filling system, job daily reporting, purchase order, review of contracts by builder, list of documents and data controlled, drawing register and transmittal, list of jobs, list of nonconformance, job development actions and the inspection and test plan which is made up of blank copies and used as new ITP’s. Plastic bins are purchased in cases of waste disposals. The material used in the manufacture of the bin is also of great importance during the disposal exercise. The leftover materials at the site undergo thorough recycling processes in order to reduce the costs associated with dumping of the same material. These materials which include concretes, bricks, tiles plastics and glass are either reused, recycled or resold to other contractors thus saving the site contractor the cost of transportation as well as disposal costs alone. These materials are grouped into segments which are labeled and transported to storage facilities for sorting purposes. For quality assurance purposes, the site inspector makes sure that the inspection plan is frequently tested, produces relevant records and ensures that the characteristics are inspected, examined and tested at each and every stage of the project development.
Before the site contractor allows the services of a subcontractor, certain forms are necessary to be filled for the purpose of future potential conflicts. The agreement is sealed by the introduction of subcontractors and suppliers quotes which is then kept on file and a comparison is made against each claim made or in cases of invoice issuance. Another form to be filled is the subcontract agreements which include details pertaining to the subcontractor as well as the essential terms needed in sealing the agreement.