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Safety Management and Risk Analysis

Abstract

Transport is one of the fundamental pillars of economic and social development. Thus, a well established maritime transport infrastructure entails the concept of incorporating safety and risk evaluation in order to make this industry reliable and effective. There are more than a hundred thousand firms involved in this industry across the world today. Thus, evaluating the nature and dimension of safety management and risk analysis becomes a basic principal in this economic field which is surrounded by a myriad of challenges both technological and man-made among others.

Introduction

Maritime transport is one of the key economic catalysts of global economic powers. From the ancient times, it played a significant and pivotal role in shaping the course of development and prosperity across diverse cultures and traditions. Therefore, it is imperative to argue that, maritime transport is the cardinal bridge that facilitates trade and contacts among countries. For instance, it is through maritime transport that sustained supply of such basic commodities as fuel, food and textile is made possible through exports and imports. It should also be noted that maritime transport offers essential security and life essentials to all region of human existence, be it on inland or on land regions, and this depends on the nature of maritime transport services. On another hand, diverse studies have established that almost 2 billion commuters embark and disembark on all global seaports. Equally, on the analysis, maritime transport provides employment and plays an integral part of global economy.

However, like any other economic sector, maritime transport is more than often marred by very hazardous occurrences, and it is on that reason that such continental bodies as European Commissions established its objectives of protecting its waters with stringent maritime rules and regulation. This is linked to the fact that, sub-standard ships have caused grievous damage to humans, marine life and properties across the world. Therefore, the objective behind European Commission establishing as well as setting maritime standards is to protect and reduce grievous and serious maritime accidents and equally control the impact of maritime transport in relation to environment.

Despite such issues addressed by European Commission it is imperative to note that other issues affecting maritime transport includes acts of terrorism and piracy as witnessed in the east African coast and in particular the port of Kismayu which is being handled by armed terrorists.

More so, looking at the wellbeing of those involved in the running the maritime transport, giving consideration to health concept and equally the instrumental issues of basic risk procedures which are paramount in containing the eventual circumstances which can result in accidents. Thus, reflecting on the fact that, maritime transport entails are modes of transport from bulk to passenger transport, it is crucial to note that such issues as security are given a substantial or rather a significant ratio of consideration. This can be linked to the fact that, security happens to be the greatest challenge that is prevalent and commonly addressed issue in maritime transport (Wilson, et al, 1997).

benefits

Therefore, addressing issues relating to Safety Management and Risk Analysis as is exuded in maritime transport, it is apparent that most industry player either gives more emphasis to the nature and size of their vessels, while another group is more concerned with how they can beat and overcome the high traffic density which is more than often cited as one of the key issues affecting maritime transport industry. Hence, increasing the vulnerability of the involved vessels to terrorist’s attacks, poor servicing and equally, endangering the lives of those involved as well as exposing the cargo on board to environmental factors which tends to be unfriendly. Thus, am of opinion that, maritime transport safety and risk management is of great concern in giving this industry a profound stability as well as establishing the much-needed value (K.A. Benjamin, et al, 2008). More so, looking at the nature of most ports which operate on a concept of bottle necks, evaluating the overall safety and risk management becomes paramount. In principal, safety can be said to be the basic concept behind all manners of parameters employed to safeguard and streamline marine transport in relation to other allied economic sectors.

Introduction to marine transport risks.

Multinational corporations, as well as domestic maritime investors, do face a myriad of marine transport risks which include fire, theft, spillage as well as accidents. Managing these risks becomes complex due to the nature of these industries. Hence establishing a sound managerial structure becomes paramount in order to build a profound ground by which the transporters can anchor their trade without the fear of succumbing to loss and destruction of life and properties. Reflecting on the consequences of the prevalent risks, it is wise to understand that, for a number of years disastrous accidents involving both commuter and freight vessels have produced a significant ratio of fatalities as well as catastrophic damage to the environment. Going by the documented evidence of maritime fatalities, it is important to underline the fact that, employing managerial and risk analysis becomes crucial.

Thus, analyzing such risks as, human errors, it is instrumental to argue that, the majority of maritime woes are as result of human errors. And from that angle, it is instrumental to aver that, be it the incident of sinking ship, fire or oil spillage or eventual destruction of cargo, human errors plays a significant rule. Therefore, from such observation, it becomes crucial to employ such positive parameters which are exuded by maritime transport Safety Management and Risk Analysis. Thus, marine transport cannot be effective or totally operational without employing the concept of safety management as well as risk analysis parameters.

Currently, due to the complexity of international trade, also the nature and dimension of maritime transport risks have adopted an increased ratio of security threats. However, though in terms of economic growth this segment of global economy have continued to embrace technological changes which are also increasing the cost of management. All in all, maritime transport have significantly attracted the number of investors, and because it entails players compromising domestic and international investors, investing in security becomes a top priority issue as far as this industry is concerned. Thus, delving into the very nature of maritime transport, one cannot failure to observe the magnitude of the trade involved, be it in terms of passenger carrier investment, fishing or managing the gigantic freight traffic.

Therefore, looking at the maritime transport through the eye of risk analysis, basically, it is apparent that, elaborate techniques have been put into place in order to help in identifying and assessing the detailed and minute factors that can easily jeopardize the effective administration of maritime transport. Thus, safety management and risk analysis being the profound procedures of employed to act as the ground guards of minimizing the like hood of aforementioned risks to take place. In general, identifying the appropriate procedures of dealing with safety and risks issue helps in developing a strong mechanism by which such risks as fire, spillage, and accidents are prevent and where they happen to occur they are dealt with successfully.

According to the various studies carried by independent maritime investors, it was established that, safety is the foremost priority which is significantly explored in as far as maritime transport is concerned. Note that, all leading companies involved in maritime transport, unlike the previous years, currently they are placing a higher premium on the very security of their workforce as well as their vessels. This change of attitude is linked to the fact that, after careful analysis of the future of this industry, as well as risk analysis, it only through concentrated safety measures that maritime transport can withstand the numeral challenges drowning other industries.

Research objectives

Due to the escalating nature of risks and safety issue affecting maritime transport, it becomes instrumental for both domestic and multinational corporations to invest and prioritize the elements of maritime transport. This largely linked to the fact that, this industry entails the transporting of both hazardous and non hazardous commodities including the passengers who commute from one region to the other. Hence, giving such an issue a significant consideration. Therefore, due to the scope of the entire maritime transport, it becomes crucial to explore at the fundamentals of maritime transport safety management and risk analysis in the industry.

Maritime transport industry.

The global maritime transport industry is depicted or characterized by diverse classes of maritime transport players. In essence, this industry entails both the participation of small and equally large and developed players. Therefore, it is paramount to realize that, maritime transport is also anchored to the concept of technology in as far as its operations are concerned.

Safety management is crucial to the very being of any given business. Principally, it forms the basic foundation by which the given business thrives. Therefore, it can be said that, safety management and in particular as is in maritime transport, acts as a litmus test by which those who are involved in this business are tested. Thus, what matters is how safety management is handled. More so, the environment by which the business is established determines the culture of handling diverse safety issues.

Typically, safety management is profound and critical cultures that have to be propagated effectively at all stages of maritime transport. So projecting at the scope of security, safety management calls for definite and well established managerial objectives. Thus, it is instrumental to aver that, such parameters as, clearly defined guidelines, safety limits and procedures as well as incorporating individuals, who are conversant with maritime safety procedures, would help in developing adequate and systematic safety controls. Considering the magnitude of maritime transport, the issue of balancing safety measures becomes mandatory.

This is linked to the fact that, establishing safety measures that are to be employed incase of maritime accidents, calls for adequate planning and this entails the availability of sufficient resource which includes appropriate vessels to be used incase of emergency and other linked safety issues which includes fire and poising among others. Thus the real scope and objectives of maritime transport safety management is to build a viable and conducive environment by which all manners of safety interferences can be identified and controlled or eventually avoided. The key objective being, reducing the destruction of environment,properties,human and animal life as well as minimizing the incidences of incurring loss due to human errors.

Despite the fact that, maritime transport is a field that is populated by a number of different players who have diverse and unique safety needs, and this calls for stringent safety management protocol in order to incorporate all safety requirements in regard to maritime transport. In essence, maritime transport safety management is instrumentally anchored around the dire goals of achieving effective and secure maritime transport.

Therefore, no matter the position being taken by maritime transport players, having a positive attitude towards safety management is commonly linked to the fact that, safety management objectives have to be developed and executed along the same lines with the objectives as is defined in transport. Note that, safety management is employed in maritime transport as an act of streamlining the industry as well as giving the involved parties and investors as well as potential client’s assurance that, maritime transport is safe and highly reliable.

According to the latest maritime transport incidences as is witnessed in some part of the world, maritime transport has been identified as one single investment area that is surrounded by a myriad of challenges.

These challenges, which includes, violation of international maritime regulations, acts of war and piracy have overtime resulted in fatal consequences; it is from such kind of developments that doing risk analysis and developing sound safety measures becomes critical. Thus, when considering the broad scope of maritime transport, such issues are given a significant consideration and in particular when exploring the appropriate procedures of implementing the stipulations of safety management. All in all, safety management cannot be ignored, this is evidenced by the fact that, it is through implementing water tight safety management measures that maritime transport develops technologically and financially.

Risk Analysis Objectives

Today unlike other period in marine transport technology breakthroughs have raised a dire concern on the menu by which marine time industry is being run. Traditionally, marine time industry has been associated with all manners of evils. However, as the trade is gaining prominence, so is the need to streamline the manner by which it is being managed. Principally, like any other organized business entity, maritime transport has been embroiled in myriads of risks which vary from financial to technical. Thus the objectives of risk analysis are regard to maritime transport as critical in that, definite and concise procedures are identified positively.

Reflecting on the fact that, whether the risks evaluated are environmental or manmade, projecting on the reliability of maritime transport, it becomes crucial to analyze the risk on the ground.

Generally the risks are regarded as the lifeline of any given business establishment. Typically, there is nothing wrong taking risk analysis. Thus, in case of maritime transport, risk analysis comes in hardy. This is due to the fact that, such risks as cost, maintenance, as well as managerial risks have to be addressed in order to effectively maritime transport.

Equally important is that, the impact of risk analysis is crucially in establishing a positive culture, whereby unforeseen incidences are prevented. Thus, the objectives behind risk analysis can be said to be a process of evaluating and assessing the scope of handling all obstacles that can negatively impact on the maritime transport. Therefore, an effective risk analysis calls for a well developed objectives. This is principally attributed to the fact that risks do in one way or the other impact positively or negatively on the very nature of business involved and in particular maritime transport.

Therefore, due to increased maritime traffic, so is the allied risks have taken a monumental dimension affecting both organizational and technical structure of maritime transport. Thus it’s crucial to life, that the objectives of maritime transport risk analysis to infect the much needed direction in terms of financial and technical advice. Note that, due to the scope and nature of business involved thus investing in such areas as communication, health, vessels maintenance as wells as in special vessels designed to carry high risks cargo as well as prominent seafarers becomes crucial. Therefore, addressing the scope of risks, this can be as a result of acts or terrorism by human factors and errors.

Also risk analysis as is exuded by maritime transport is critical in that, it’s through profound risk evaluation that even the real capital is infected in streamlining this arm of maritime industry.

Across ass spheres of maritime transport no element that is hazardous or deems to be so is to be taken for granted. Hence, when the objectives of risk analysis are employed and utilized, maritime transport acquires a new face, where security and safety are guaranteed in all fronts. Thus in principal, risk analysis in regard to maritime transport can be summed as fundamental path towards achieving a desirable and conducive trading environment. All in all, maritime transport, in the modern society cannot be effective without addressing and understanding the scope of risks that are apparent and identifying the parameters of handling them effectively. It’s from such angles that risk analysis managers sets the parameters of the risks to be omitted and those to be accepted within a given limit.

Measurement of safety management and risk analysis

Numerous literature reviews have been explored in regard to maritime transport safety management and risk analysis. It has been noted that overtime, both domestic and multinational investors interested in maritime transport have invested heavily in streamlining this area in terms of research as well as introduction of high teach vessels, equally on the same panel, it has been exposed that domestic maritime transport is often more reluctant to employ acceptable safety and risk measures. Comparing this observation with the articulation of multinational maritime transport investors, it is apparent that, safety management and risk analysis differs significantly from region to region. Therefore, the eventual determination of industry prefers to streamline the maritime transport industry through employing and introducing conducive and safety management parameters covering the entire maritime transport arena.

From established intergovernmental maritime policies, it is widely known that freight and vessel management goes hand in hand with safety management, however, its open those diverse and unique vessels calls for unique and specific safety management. For instance, nuclear waste vessels have special safety management policies, while oil tanker likewise have their own defined safety management protocol, thus it is instrumental to understand that, maritime transport in total cannot be covered in minute safety management policies due to its diversity. Equally, thus risk analysis of each sphere of maritime transport is measured differently due to the nature of vessels involved.

Discount

It’s paramount to argue that, diverse empirical studies and reviews have established that maritime transport is typically or more that often affected by issues pertaining to human factors more than even from environmental and technical. Critically driving into such a situation, it is worthy to reflect on the theory that, be it safety management or risk analysis its instrumental to pay more attention to areas that human factors have a high ratio of influencing the basis foundation of maritime transport.

Within a span of one decade, much has been witnessed in the dimension of maritime transport, where vessels have been attacked on the open seas and in particular on the international waters within the diameter of Somali show line in Indian Ocean, this development have raised the concern on the marine by which safety management on such vessels is define, more importantly is how the risk analysis is examined while dealing in such cases, where the vessel, crew, cargo as well as the marine live are exposed to danger due to acts of piracy and terrorism.

Regarding, safety management, many vessel builders put more weight on the safety of the entire vessel, however, due to technological breakthroughs, maritime transport is being redefined in order to offer guaranteed safety to both the vessel and the crew. Thus, it’s paramount to say that safety management is being given top priority in order to sustain a vibrant maritime transport industry.

According to a recent report which was released by a government funded maritime transport watchdog in Kenya, it was found that, risk analysis is highly instrumental in the manner by which safety management is enacted. Thus looking at the scope and objectives of maritime transport, safety is paramount. So the commonly employed measures are typically designed towards safeguarding the vessel and cargo, however due to the raise of international safety standards in regard to marine transport, both private and governmental owned firms are employing safety measures which are geared towards having a functional and secure maritime transport.

Thus, it has become the prerogative of maritime transport players to offer training to their staff whether in the field of management and organizational affairs as in the actual vessels and cargo handling and maintenance. Such measures have over time helped shape and mould the concept of maritime transport safety management and risk analysis. To sustain viable and sound safety measures, maritime transport companies are incorporating other interested entities, such as Navy, financial institutions as well as research institutions.

This has been found to be necessitated by the fact that, for safety to be sustained in maritime transport, cooperation and investment of other stakeholders cannot be ignored. Thus a result of both domestic and multinational corporations involved in maritime transport are investing heavily in the area of security meaning safety management have undertaken a new dimension which is supeceding the initial concept of safety.

Despite the fact that there exists a controversy between safety management and risk analysis, due to the diversity of marine transport. Several arguments have increasingly indicated that each individual firm involved in maritime transport do prefer to employ external safety measures depending on the size and the nature of carry they handle (Sax,1984). This option has exposed the diversity of safety measures employed by different maritime transport firms. Though there are universal safety management policies to be followed by both domestic and multinational firms. It’s the duty of the individual firms to enact the laid down safety rules and regulations.

Though each and every nation has got specific laid down policies which have been developed to regulate maritime transport, it is imperative to underline the fact that, safety management procedures are employed clinically to sustain the marine transport operations. Therefore, though each and every marine transport player has established rules of sustaining safety management measures, it is how they are defined and enacted that makes the difference. While, there are universally accepted safety and risk approaches, maritime transport continues to exude interest and concern, this is fundamentally based on the ground that any slight ignorance in as far as safety is concerned, the resulting consequences can be grievous and fatal. Also risk analysis falls under the same pool (Train, 2003). Note that, risks are instrumentally varied, thus, evaluating the favorable risks in relation to those risks which cannot be taken.

In principal, it is logical to state that on the context of empirical analysis and equally qualitative and quantitative procedures maritime transport risk analysis offers wide options which are significantly vital in the way this trade is handled. As recent literature points, risk analysis as well as safety management in maritime transport are intricately measured differently depending on the returns and magnitude of the investor involved (Lundgrun, 1994). Though, there is no concrete evidence in regard to the overall safety management measures, but it has been ascertained that individual safety is often given a top priority when addressing the scope of safety in this field (Sittig, 1985).

Interestingly, comparing the scope of maritime transport across the globe, it is prevalent that, there are some nations and firms who have in principal referred to incorporate modern safety and risk analysis in their infrastructure.

However, due to the rate by which maritime industry is developing, it is apparent that the emerging trend in maritime transport is moving towards where both safety and risks are viewed and analyzed concurrently.

This is typically allied to the fact that, both safety management and risk analysis is regard to maritime transport, cells for strategic approach and orientation in the field of operating procedures, which includes, data analysis, research as well as marketing and health. Thus the extent by which any given firm opts to take in regard to safety management and risk analysis is more than often dictated by the financial stability of the given firm or government in that case (Rasmussen,1996).

In seeking to understand the scope of maritime transport in relation to safety management and risk analysis, most firms are opting to employ both domestic and international marine principles. And this greatly is helping the most affected party to invest on its future in regard to marine transport industry.

Research Methodology

Previous empirical survey on the management and risk analysis in the maritime transport has been carried out through postal surveys as well as through interviews. Across all spheres of maritime transport more team 20 transport firms were involved in the survey; these firms were based on the Pacific Ocean while another 15 times operating within the waters of Atlantic and Indian Ocean were also involved in the survey (Robertson,et al,1988).

The researcher method employed in this study will basically involve the case study or maritime transport firms in regard to the safety management and risk analysis. Having identified the scope of the research, it is instrumental to note that, the use of this research method helps in eliminating the risks of non response from the transport firms. Also, due to the diversity of marine transport firms analyzed, this method stands to be cheaper and reliable than relying on postal surveys as well as prospect of relying on unqualified information; secondary information as well as other sources like internet library and annual reports on maritime transport safety are employed during the initial analysis (White, 1995). However, in some stages, database like data stream is used while collecting independent valuable in order to have a glimpse of how foreign maritime transport firms have invested in safety management. Also websites such as yahoo and Google have provided significance information on the safety management and risk analysis of maritime transport (American Petroleum Institute, 1990).

Sample analysis

Employing the use information based on domestic and multinational firms that met the following criteria were included in the research:

  • The firms that were actively involved in maritime shipping organizations.
  • The firms are either multinational or domestic maritime transporter exposed to safety of other risks.

Characteristically, the research into the firms falling under the stated criteria tends to cover wide and broad areas. These principal areas being:

  • Organization of safety management in the firm.
  • Disclosure of risk analysis instruments.
  • Organization of risk management.
  • Which procedures are used and the exposure which these procedures attempt to manage.

Table of marine transport firms

Domestic Multinational
Ascope Shipping Service Land Shipping Company
African Shipping Lines COSCO
Valesco Holdings Ltd Safmarine
Indian Ocean sea freights Ascope Shippers (UK)

Firm characteristics

As indicated in the above table, a number of firms were employed in the study and they provided a substantial information in regard to safety and risk which they had compiler for post the year.

Analysis of results

Descriptive of companies

All domestic firms used in the research are listed by the National board regulatory all maritime operations they offered a reliable insight into the scope of how they enhance security and sustain safety measures through a well formulated safety management procedures (Amendola, 1995). Thus, it is important to say that safety management is one area that is regarded as vital by both domestic and multinational maritime transport firms, proved that they upgrade their safety management programs annually, while risk analysis was principally undertaken by all firms in order to have a concise evaluation of the real maritime transport investment(Anderson,et al,1996).

This finding is also supported by the previous studies, which attempted to establish the significance of risk analysis and safety management by the so called “smell” maritime transport firms.

Thus, also the result exposed that effective safety management objectives were implemented and utilized where, policies regarding maritime transport firms. Therefore analysis report, it is equally, important to are that, having operational safety and risk management practices executed helped to create and provide a framework for the assessment of how individual, domestic or multinational maritime transport firms handled diverse risks which are apparent within the maritime industry (Bakker,2004). And this vividly established that, due to competitive nature of maritime transport, many firms have opted to handle the safety management seriously, hence investing in the safety of their vessels heavily in or to build a good repute and image (Zajic, et al, 1978). This development is commonly linked to the fact, maritime transport as a trade thrills around prospects of safety. Thus the objective of safety management and risks analysis tends to be the desire to provide protection as wells as safeguarding the financial inflows (Oxenburgh, 1991).

Organization of safety management and risk analysis

Due to the complexity of maritime safety management and risk analysis, various views and literature reviews often concur that risk management is structurally projected towards exposing various risks. Hence, the principal work turns out to be determining whether, the concept of risk analysis is to be centralized or decentralized in regard to the functions of maritime transport. Thus, the function of risk analysis, as well as safety management system in regard to other maritime trade, creates management functionality which despite the safety challenges that result due to the human errors and environmental factors. Maritime transport defines its own safety and risk procedures, which, which can either be centralized.

Thus, in such a scenario, its prudence to aver that, both domestic and multinational maritime transport corporations may employ the concept of centralized safety management and risk analysis. Therefore, this points to the earlier argument that, maritime transport stakeholders tend to put more emphasis on the safety of their vessels. However, with the introduction of harmonized maritime transport safety procedure, it’s becoming easier for potential investors to undertake risk analysis in accordance with stipulated regulations. Thus, this is an indication that, it can be easier to assess safety management and risk analysis from individual maritime transport firm’s annual safety and risks reports and observations.

For example, a number of maritime transport firms operating within the coast of Indian Ocean indicated that, the central control of safety management provided the corporations with a consistent approach by which safety measures are examined and executed. Therefore centralization of safety management and risk analysis provides firms dealing with marine transport with significant advantages, which could not be gained where decentralization of safety and risk measures are in use. In principal, this is a pointer to the fact that, each maritime transport firm is allowed to run its own safety management and risk analysis centre independently. The objective behind such development is fundamentally created by the firm’s desires to either operate within domestic or foreign markets.

Though centralized system of handling safety management and risk analysis is significantly costly, but aggressive safety management in relation to risk analysis helps the involved firms to overcome resistance created by both human and technical factors. Therefore, am of opinion, that, the scope of safety management goes beyond the general theory which links safety issues only to maritime transport vessels. Thus, it’s imperative to associate safety management regarding maritime transport to environment and the general well being of the people involved in the daily – today running of this industry. It is understandable, that safety comprises all elements that offer protective cover, likewise, risk analysis on the other hand offers or prepares the ground by which such safety management measures are implemented and executed.

Nevertheless, the consistent factors illuminating the safety management dictates that, no maritime rules and regulation ought to be ignored, this is linked to the fact that, maritime transport entails both civilian and military vessel, more so, this means that, utmost care must be considered, for all over the world, some of the highly hazardous materials are handled and transport by means of maritime transport. This point to the purpose of carrying critical analysis when considering in deal with the maritime transport. It is important to note that, risk analysis coupled with safety management helps in propagating a viable trade, where no one is allowed to be exposed to injury or loss due to miscalculation of risks identified.

Going by the rules and regulations which have been put in place by international shipping bodies as well as with the universal organizations dealing with environment, it has been established that, maritime transport is a high risk investment due to the bulk cargo it handles which includes nuclear waste, unrefined oil as well as uranium and other highly toxic commodities which calls for specialized handling. Thus, safety management comes in handy in order to sustain safe handling of such cargo. And this entails even protecting the environment due to the long time effects which can arise due to negligence (Ben-Akiva, M. and S. R. Lerman, 1985).

As noted by environmentalist, marine transport can be fatal if no safety parameters are implemented. They observed that, despite employing unique features in their transport vessels. it’s instrumental to put into place safety measures which are of significance in sustaining a healthy environment as well as a healthy working condition. More so, even protecting the human and marine lives (Granger Morgan, M. and Henrion, M., 1990). So, it is imperative to note that, though risk analysis is often costly, and in some cases proves hard to determine which risks are acceptable, it helps in reducing any prevailing risks which can negatively injure the maritime transport in general.

Through elimination procedures, maritime transport, as an industry has witnessed the growth and development of reliable safety management systems. According to the Kenya Ports Authority (KPA), which runs and manages the largest harbor in the east African coast of Indian Ocean, it avers that, over a period of last ten years, both civilian and military transport vessels have undergone a significance and tremendous change in terms of safety management as well as in technological advancement. The report also pointed out that, communication technologies have also made safety measures to be employed effectively (Guswa, 1984).

Thus, as it was indicated by an article published in the journal The seafarers, that maritime transport is established on the ground of safety, as the author noted, safety is critical due to the fact that, often the vessels employed are directed in the high seas where emergence incidences are ever present. Hence diverse studies have shown that, almost all foreign companies involved in international maritime transport do indicate and define their safety management procedures after doing thorough risk analysis. This is often necessitated by the desire to protect and safeguard human life and equally the vessels.

Complying With Maritime Transport Standard and Requirements

As with the information acquired from maritime transport companies in their websites, safety and risks annual reports, it can be said that, the concepts of safety management and risk analysis are governed and defined by the laid rules and regulations which have been identified by the international maritime transport treaties which are applicable to all vessel with the exception with special purpose vessels which are often used by military and other allied institutions. Generally, it is mandatory for any firm or individual willing to invest in maritime transport industry to acquire verification from the appropriate shipping or maritime transport authority.

This procedure is significant due to the fact that, safety management must be employed in accordance with international standards which have been verified and accredited. Thus, the point of enacting safety management and risk analysis measures which are in line with maritime transport protocol helps in developing the essential and effective safety and risk controls(Green,1984). Meanings, the eventual coordination of safety management systems as well as risk analysis procedures are taken into consideration and implemented effectively (American Institute of Chemical Engineers).

Basically, complying with maritime transport safety management procedures is important in that, it helps in the way the overall industry is run and managed. More so, safety aspects do help in the manner by which vessels are designed and handled including passengers and cargo in case of emergence. Therefore, employing the laid down maritime procedures of sustaining safety it is crucial to understand that, most of the safety guidelines are principally designed for the use by the freight crew, however, of late more and more maritime transport firms are enacting safety management procedures which are purposely detailed to benefit both the crew as well as protect the vessel.

Therefore, regarding safety management, it is imperative to say that, no matter the challenges involved in operating an effective maritime transport, it is vital to reflect on the importance of adhering to the researched and tested safety principles, and this bring us to the conclusion that, safety management and risk analysis cannot be separated while dealing with the issues regarding maritime transport (Kasperson, et al, 1991).

Conclusion.

The application of safety management and risk analysis in maritime transport are paramount in that, they help in reducing as well as preventing accidents which could arise due to hazardous cargo aboard any given vessel or equally from vessel which are poorly maintained. With well developed safety management, it is highly unlikely for maritime transport to be embroiled in losses and incidences of loss to mention just but a few.

Thus, such issues as fire, oil spillage or the instance of any given vessel sinking due to human or environmental factors can be controlled and incase of break down due to the laid safety procedures there high chances of rescuing the crew, cargo and even the vessel.

This research in line with the findings of Fitzpatrick (1983), Cooper (1998), and Cooke (1991), indicated that, maritime transport cannot be effective without carrying out significant risk analysis in order to establish the appropriate safety management procedures. It should be noted that, almost all vessels involved in maritime transport must adhere to the rules and regulations that are designed and approved towards effecting safety in all maritime transport vessels (Bakker, 2004).

In conclusion, it can be said that, the scope of safety management and risk analysis in maritime transport, helps in developing the appropriate procedures of facilitating the positive steps that are paramount in enhancing smooth operation in this industry. It should be noted that, safety management also assists in making the maritime transport hospitable and secure. It through concentrated efforts, that maritime transport is defined as secure, where those involved in this industry operate safely.

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