It is said that recipes always preserve their flavor. Those of a whole-wheat country loaf and Greek yogurt zucchini bread are not the exception. The current paper will compare and contrast these two recipes. They were chosen for the compare/contrast analysis as both of them share common features as well as exhibit vast differences. Both are considered snacks, but the selection and usage of more healthy ingredients might significantly influence the dishes. These recipes are organized in a different manner since they appeal to the discrepant audience. The analysis will help to define the rhetorical properties of both recipes, revealing their purpose, context, audience and appeals to it.
The two recipes appear to be quite similar as both of them concern bread preparation. Their main purpose appears to be twofold being, at the same time, theoretical and practical. Thus, on the one hand, they demonstrate technical facets of a dish while, on the other hand, provide the peculiar combination of texture and flavor. The analysis shows that Pollan’s recipe is more complicated, which is visible through the provided cooking time. Despite the fact that the active time requires only 70 minutes, the total time stands for the period of 5 to 10 days (Pollan 427). On the contrary, the recipe taken from the web site provides the information that the author of the recipe has been capable of cooking the bread three times during two weeks (“Greek Yogurt Zucchini Bread”).
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The comparing of two recipes demonstrates the language discrepancies between an expert-oriented recipe, in which the author attempts to capture the attention of majorly unfamiliar audience using strict and detailed instructions and precise writing style, and a web site recipe, in which it is presumed that the audience possesses the background cognizance and cooking knowledge. Both recipes are marked by a series of imperative verb forms, which are related to what the recipe involves, for instance, “mix 50 grams each of the whole-grain and all-purpose flours until combined” (Pollan 428) and “preheat the oven to 350°F and grease a 9×5 inch loaf pan” (“Greek Yogurt Zucchini Bread”). The imperative forms are the most distinguishing syntactic features of both recipes. They help in creating an internal cohesion between the recipe elements. However, the author of the second recipe occasionally uses non-imperative clauses or sentences, which perform the function of the narrations, equipping evaluations, and descriptions. Moreover, the section before the actual recipe is dedicated to the comments, which are not explicitly the integral part of the recipe. They are typographically set apart and perform the function of auxiliary messages to the reader.
The above-mentioned sections are specific examples of pathos rhetoric strategies, as they are used to appeal to the audience’s emotions through a variety of rhetorical devices, including rhetorical questions, hypophora, the usage of pronouns among others. Thus, rhetorical questions help in persuading the potential readers, for instance, in “Greek Yogurt Zucchini Bread,” the author says, “and that’s the point of healthy baking, isn’t it?!” In addition, she uses the second-person as in, “you’re going to love it too”, which fulfills the function of an additional message reminding the pre-literate oral spreading and transferring of recipes via the usage of pronouns, for instance, “you,” which typically distinguishes a verbal conversation from written recipes. The same rhetorical usage of pronouns appears in the other recipe, for example, “you will need a digital scale” or “build your starter” (Pollan 427). However, on the contrary to the previous recipe, Sally’s Baking Addiction demonstrates another rhetorical device, namely, hypophora, which stand for asking a question and providing an answer to it, for example, “And you know what’s even better? Their line includes our regular favorites.” In addition, Pollan’s recipe utilizes the rhetorical strategy of logos, specifically when explains why ingredients are stated in grams. He appeals to the reason that this is precisely done for “keeping with the custom for bread recipes,” which is the main cause why the quantities are provided by weight rather than volume (Pollan 427).
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Both recipes reveal the history of the used recipes. Pollan’s recipe contains an example of logos strategy demonstrating that the idea of such bread has been adapted from Chad Robertson’s country loaf through simple replacing of white flour with the wholegrain type. The author provides logical reasoning for these changes demonstrating that such choice of ingredients will help in creating “a decent loaf of bread, which will not be as airy or flavorful” (Pollan 427). On the other hand, the second recipe is a sample of pathos rhetorical strategy as, despite the fact that the author changed Quinn’s family recipe, the message regarding alterations is provided through emotional appeal, “something a little sweet that’s not dripping with oil nor overloaded with sugar. And hello! You’re winning already” (“Greek Yogurt Zucchini Bread”). Moreover, the author explicitly explained all changes, but the majority of them are personally driven. The only ingredient, which appears to be appropriately explained stands for the Greek yogurt. The author states that it helps in making the crumb highly moist, which is necessary as moisture disappears because of the oil reduction.
Both recipes provide the list of required ingredients before the actual explanation of how to cook. Nevertheless, the major difference between their presentation appears in the fact that the recipe provided by Sally’s Baking Addiction includes optional ingredients, and they are not separated according to the cooking steps as opposed to Pollan’s one. The latter demonstrates three major steps, including the starter, leaven, and bread, which incorporate discrepant ingredients. This recipe is the case when the sequence is based on the elements ordering, and, thus, the text has the subdivision into a variety of sections or stages, which actually limits certain actions. The current recipe includes eight major stages, incorporating making the starter, the leaven, the bread, bulk fermenting the dough, dividing the dough, shaping the dough, proofing, and baking. On the other hand, Sally makes the cooking procedure explicit through the numbers, which delimit the specific actions (“Greek Yogurt Zucchini Bread”). The directions involve only four major steps. In fact, the recipe does not provide strict guidelines supposing that the audience might shift from the ordered list of procedural commands, making the recipe confusing for non-experts. Nonetheless, both recipes helpfully mention what might go wrong during the cooking procedure and how to omit or improve the situation. For example, the authors write, “if you find the top of the bread is browning too quickly in the oven, loosely cover it with aluminum foil” (“Greek Yogurt Zucchini Bread”) and “if the leaven does not float in warm water, you’ll probably want to add some yeast” (Pollan 430).
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The web site recipe is interactive due to the fact that it is supplemented by appetizing photos which are another device used in pathos rhetorical strategy. The usage of concrete visual element opens many more emotional pathways than abstract words alone. Nevertheless, the usage of photos demonstrates that that the intentional audience of this recipe is men and women who value cooking fresh meals at home using seasonal ingredients but cannot be considered the experts in the field. They enjoy creating new dishes and frequently search the Internet for new recipe ideas. The photos are both appealing and helpful as they vividly demonstrate the anticipated result; thus, if something goes wrong, people can take photos into account and make necessary changes to obtain the analogous result. On the other hand, Pollan’s recipe can be viewed as cooking expert oriented as it does not provide photos while all instructions are strict and precise. Comparing to Sally’s recipe, these guidelines are much easier to follow as they are explicit enough, highly detailed, and explain all the consequences. On the other hand, the audience of Sally’s web site can be viewed as large and generic. This is the main reason why the author explains specific optional ingredients and actions. In addition, this a recipe implies a more symmetric and peer-to-peer relationships, demonstrating that the author does not want to set oneself apart by either culinary expertise or editorial control. Nevertheless, the latter can be solidly felt through such pathos persuasions as “you’re going to love it” (“Greek Yogurt Zucchini Bread”). In contrast, Pollan utilizes logos strategy, merely stating the facts that “whole-grain bread is usually at its best on day two” (432).
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The current analysis demonstrates two recipes, namely, those of the whole-wheat country loaf and Greek yogurt zucchini bread. The first one is purposed for the more experienced audience or even cooking experts as the instructions are precise and strict. The second one appeals to a broader audience of cooking amateurs showing the author’s individual experience, useful tips for dealing with the associated difficulties or problems, optional ingredients, and a more peer-to-peer language. Nevertheless, these recipes have much in common, including the list of necessary ingredients as well as the directions and steps for preparing the dish. The analysis demonstrates that the purposed audience determines the usage of the rhetorical strategies, which are suitable for a specific reader. Thus, the first recipe is more based on the logos strategy while the second typically utilizes rhetorical devices characteristical to pathos rhetoric strategy. The rhetorical properties of these recipes are highly discrepant even despite the fact that they have numerous similarities regarding basic structure and formulation.