The paper dwells on the concerns of population balancing against scarce resources, summarizes policies on population control and review policy framework initiated by the government in response to demographic regimes threatening the future survival. Population control is a deliberately architect policy(s) programs via which government actively manipulate, demographic changes either directly or indirectly. For any country, the target of population control policy may be summarized as the determining factor manipulating variances in the population under their government’s jurisdictions.
These concerns may surpass territorial circumference to include international facets of limiting population presumably on a steady rise. In addition, outcome of individual decision on childbearing intertwined with the social milieu constraints implicitly calculated. Though the benefits and cost of fertility may impose serious burdens to the society, at primary level, are minor. Both the positive and negative externalities of population control are explored in this essay. In details, international population control strategies are discussed and options available to thwart a looming population explosion.
The key concept in this essay is the analysis of population control and various arguments cited to either support or discredit this artificial act. By general definition, population control is an organized simulated manipulation of the rate at which human beings multiply in a country .Over time; this practice has been implemented by existing governments via limiting overall birth rate in response to factors like environmental degradation, religion, or too much pressure as a result of overpopulation. The main aim is to empower the population to be able to manage their rate of reproduction.
This concept gained momentum in the global village during the period of 1960’s and 70’s when family planning and reproductive health programs were initiated in large scale .Among practices aimed at reducing the birth rate may include use of family planning contraceptives, stringent check-in immigration and emigration and medical abortion among others. In addition, population control is an economic and political concern during planning. In the ancient time, larger population was preferred as a source of security against an epidemic or at war times.
In the 20th century, proponents of population controlled by a British clergy Thomas Malthus who passed an argument that an unchecked population growth increases geometrically a against food security increasing inversely rationed arithmetically. Control of population thus means having practical policies pointed towards appropriate death and birth rate. While Malthus echoed a warning of possible starvation in the end, today, man denounces himself for threatening the globe by excessive consumption. In fact, those with large families are considered environmentally irresponsible.
Moreover, siring many children has slowly exploded into an eco-crime on pollution. Any additional human head is viewed as a candidate of carbon production; pollution. In relation to this, limitation of population is a park in the carbon offsetting goal. In addition, global warming is as a result of human being interference with the ecosystem. The ever-increasing population pressure on natural resources has turned planet Earth into a garbage trash evident of the unreliable climatic variations, hurricane winds and expansion of semi-deserts across the globe. Controlling fertility has become a mandatory duty not just a choice.
In the past two centuries, most of the problems experienced in the world have been blamed on an unbalanced rapidly multiplying mass. Famine, desertification, failed economies, women subordination, instability among others is directly linked to a surging population. Apparently, overpopulation translates into a mass of poor, unemployed disoriented group only keen on consumption but never striving to replace the used up part of the planet Earth.
Methods of population control
At present in the world, there are about 5.8 billion people living on planet Earth. According to a report released by the United Nations, total population is expected to hit a 7.9 billion mark by 2050. At present, the globe is merely struggling to hold on despite the almost catastrophic visible large-scale threats of global warming, soaring crime levels, and depletion of the ozone layer, food poisoning and famine triggered by the world increasing number of people dependent on the planet’s resources for survival. Population control in this scenery may be the only option available. There are several components of population control and some of them include the use of contraception, medical abortion,
This is a temporary mechanism of controlling population through concentration on the point of sexual reproduction before birth. Backed by an amendment appropriation bill of the 1998, family planning via was made easily possible by this bill aiming to distribute these contraceptives all over the world. To affirm their commitment on population control, Mexico City Policy conference on population control passed a bill to withdraw any form of funding to private family planning programs that were found to be involved in abortion (Eager, 2004).
Proper use of contraceptives in the first place reduces pregnancy by almost 99%. Among contraceptives in use are condoms, pills and injections working to prevent an unwanted pregnancy thus contributing to the efforts in place to limit population. For instance, use of condoms is believed to have managed to prevent over one billion pregnancies which would have translated into children. However, this program is always coercive, dependent on uninformed implementation. In fact, most of products used to avoid pregnancy like IUDs, Depo-Provera are untested, unsafe and in most cases illegal in developed countries. To be specific, sterilization describes 45% of the contraception in the third world.
Abstinence is keeping away from sexual intercourse. Religion has been strong in campaigning for this .Thomas Malthus; a clergy proposed that if the existing population could practice abstinence, then population would not be increasing at the present rates (Miller, 2009).
In the present time, most governments have bills in place legalizing abortion. In case of an unplanned pregnancy, one can opt for the services of an authorized person to terminate the same as long as the set rules are observed. Morality of abortion has ensured heated debate among the conservatives and proponents of pregnancy termination. This policy however is on a voluntary basis .This means that only the interested persons can practice it depending on the background of one practicing it (Farmer, 2008).
All countries of the world have specified laws and regulations controlling unrestricted movements from one territory to another. In line with the stringent laws on migration, checks at the territorial borders are enforced to minimize immigrant’s access into such a country. America’s border with Mexico is always under 24 hour surveillance as a remedy to cut down the number of illegal immigrants who troop into America and scramble with the citizen over scarce facilities. In addition, a framework crafted to regulate refuge programs clearly define who a refuge is, country of origin as a statistic for resettling them to their native land (Parsons, 2008).
Components of population control
Population and environment
Population growth if unrestricted certainly would result in an eco-imbalance globally. At present, the whole world is keen on ensuring that the third world countries are committed to curbing environmental disaster via population limitation policies. To qualify for SAP loan, Senegal must prove to the World Bank of their commitment in environment protection by a policy touching on population control. As the developed world continues to involve in over-consumption, they seek for resources from developing counterpart. As much as there is a rush to lay claim on the resources of developing country, foreign firms interfere with the environment and natives of that country. The population problem lies with the population of developed countries who practice overconsumption and overwhelmingly emit greenhouse gases’
Population control and quality of health
Due to the even surging population growth, serious strains on the available health facilities has forced the governments of the world to redirect limited resources on health-related sectors at the expense of food security. Infant mortality seems to be higher in over populated areas characterized by absolute penury (Rao, 2004).
Population control policies
These are deliberately formulated programs, which governments create to influence population planning and control within its territory. In addition, these may be extended to cover their interest globally.
Population control in Ancient societies
Apolitical unit ruler is always interested in the size in terms of numbers and composition of the demography they have authority over. They may try to influence the population growth in a certain vector. In the ancient empires, numbers connoted wealth and power for the rulers occupying the heart of class pyramid. During this era, marriage was for procreation. Persons in this society were naturally accommodated on basis of customs practiced. With the harsh economic and biological predicaments experienced by the ancient societies, moderately high fertility provided a security margin over mortality. Survivors of this era carried forward the biblical instruction to multiply. In addition, with reference to population growth, sampled death and birth rate was almost similar (Tobin, 2004).
As modernity dawns, the state was redefined as a setup organized by individual keen of advancing their interest. The state is also entrusted with the role of regulating immigration. Preference of each individual may differ and it is upon the government to make such decision.
At variant mortality and fertility rates, in the traditional regime demography like the Western Europe model was successful in keeping low average echelon of mortality by maintaining relatively low birth rates through raised age of marriage .The situation in India was the opposite of this but the population growth was kept at bay by the skyrocketing death rates experienced.
In line with the US constitution promulgated in the year 1789, issues of domestic tranquility and general welfare are all formulated in the law extending to immigration regulation defined as part of the public interest. In addition, aggregate fertility, spontaneously is part of social order interaction. Coordination of variant preferences interest groups necessitated state intervention in matters concerned with population control. In line with this, it is in order to put forth an argument that an over-populous country fault lies with the people. Rather, fault may be a constitutional undoing. As a result, population control policies are aligned inside public institutions and systems of incentive as a guide on birth control as a harmonized collective interest (Sassone, 1998).
At present age, technological progress and improved living standards has been effective in controlling mortality rates than was so in the ancient societies. However, this has steeply accelerated growth of the population has continuously been a straining factor in the economic capacity of the modern societies .The agencies then must strive to swift towards implementation of sound policies alternating into a sustainable equilibrium .
In the eighteenth century, industrial revolution and constant interaction between economy and culture produced a hybrid milieu encouraging parents to sustain high fertility rates as the economy was at a crisis deficit in labor demand. To encourage the population to reproduce, a government policy on basic education was made free .In addition; there was a temporal ban on advertisement and use of contraceptives and climaxing in complete illegalization of abortion. With a void still existence for labor demand, unchecked immigration raided this block and temporarily aided demographic balance required (Sassone, 1998).
The first and the second world wars aftermath greatly reduced the world population. During this period, there was a temporal interruption of population growth. After the First World War, fertility rates feel to very low degree that a concern was raised on the possibility any population increase by natural way. Moreover, the damage was worsened by depression experienced thereafter .Policies in response was centered on calls to enhance fertility as a remedy to at least give an assurance of future servile of population balance. In a desperation move, the government implemented a redistributive income reward for families’ practicing socially desirable high reproduction. France was particularly active in rewarding families with many children with a comprehensive income package. With vigor, the same was witnesses in other European states faced with the same scenario (Sharif, 2007).
By 1980s, population projection had surpassed the expected mark and instead, policies to reverse the threatening strain in eco system were constituted at a macro levels. Although redistributive policies in place have been comparatively successful, however, due to an over a stretched fiscal component has since made it difficult to monitor and evaluate a strained welfare state. In addition, an average disposable income distribution per family in the contemporary society is skewed on the pointer of uncertainty.
When the fertility rate is high, as still is in the developing continents of Africa and Asia, economists have made predictions that with an economic development, this trend will decline to a replaceable levels. Continuous population increase is unsustainable in the end. Naturally, catastrophic mortality rates will eat into an unsustainable hazardous constrain on the eco balance (Milwertz, 1997).
In conclusion, compensatory flows in immigration, in future is predicted to explode beyond any practical policy on ethnic or cultural continuity. Both in the United States of America and the rest of the rest of the world are faced with uncertainty in future economic expansion programs due to the even surging but difficult to control population growth, which at present is inversely proportional to eco system sustainability. The earlier the government comes to terms with an inevitable overpopulation, the better for a possibility of survival. In addition, tougher conventions on pollution need to be reinforced strictly to safeguard limited chance of surviving future eco imbalance hazards. It is definition impartial to heap blame on the developing countries for the current eco imbalances threatening survival of humanity. Solutions aimed at controlling population surge should target the source rather than symptoms.