Trafficking of humans is a type of present-day and historical slavery where individuals profit from the exploitation and control of others. Trafficking of humans, particularly children and women, is among the fastest growing forms of criminal activity next to weapons trade and drugs making huge profits yearly. The explanations for the rise in this worldwide occurrence are complex and multiple affecting poor and rich nations alike. The points of origin or source areas are usually the more deprived locations, regions or states, and the destination points are usually − however not at all times − urban corporations across or within borders. For everyone who perceives trafficking in monetary terms, it is the perceived differential between the destination area and economic status of the source that is vital. In reality, nevertheless, people may be and are trafficked from one poor area to another for motives only known by the traffickers, a reality that has been confirmed by exploration studies and documentation all over the globe. The evidence is that the human trafficking process is manipulated and designed by traffickers for their personal benefit whereby they use every form of means; therefore, it would be inappropriate to think that people are usually trafficked from undeveloped to more developed locations since it is always not the case. To a large extent, this more so implies that trafficking is a human rights concern since it infringes the basic human rights of everybody trafficked (Bastia 2005).
As outlined under the constitutional law in many nations, victims of trafficking comprise children implicated in the sex trade, and grown-ups of 18 years. They are deceived or coerced into commercial sex activities and compelled into diverse types of labor or services. Some of the work can include domestic working in detained homestead, or farm-laborers compelled to work against their desire. The aspects that each of these circumstances has in common are aspects of fraud, force, or coercion that are employed to control individuals. Subsequently, such manipulation is tied to forcing someone into acts of commercial sex, or services or labor (Bastia 2005). Many individuals in the field have summed up the idea of trafficking in humans as a “compelled service.” Trafficking in individuals is a big felony and a serious breach of human rights. Annually, thousands of women, children, and men fall into the traffickers’ hands, abroad or in their own nations. Almost all states worldwide are affected by human trafficking, either as a destination for victims’ country of origin or transit. Acting as UN Convention against International Planned Crime watchdog, UNODC helps nations in their attempts to execute the Protocol to Suppress, Prevent and Punish Trafficking in individuals.
Preventing Human Trafficking
The “Be Smart, Be Safe” catalogs outline the techniques criminal organizations employ to compel and traffic women, associated dangers, and what victims can do to defend themselves against illegal groups. These catalogs also provide information on the rights of victims and how they can acquire assistance while in the United States. Through its worldwide television drive on trafficking in persons, the United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention (ODCCP) cautions many possible victims concerning the risks of trafficking (Shelley 2010).
Lack of economic opportunity and poverty make children and women possible victims of traffickers related to global illegal groups. They are susceptible to untrue assurances of job prospects in other nations. Those who consent to such offers from what seems to be legal sources find themselves in circumstances where their records are damaged, threatened with harm, and bonded by a debt that they cannot settle (Brysk & Choi-fitzpatrick 2012).
Whereas children and women are especially susceptible to trafficking for the sex trade, trafficking in persons is not restricted to sexual manipulation. It more so comprises individuals who are trafficked into bonded labor markets like agricultural plantations, sweat shops or domestic services or into ‘forced’ relationships. Several forms of interventions are needed in order to prevent trafficking in persons. Some are of moderate or low cost and can have an instant effect, like awareness campaigns that permit high-risk people to make conversant verdicts. Proper Legislations that are imposed are an efficient restraint (Brysk & Choi-fitzpatrick 2012).
For instance, in Asia, a number of initiatives have already started to tackle the basis of trafficking in women. Among the responses by Thailand was to concentrate on the cause of the need for trafficked services, like the customers of child sex workers. Through the lobbying and impetus of the National Commission on Women’s Affairs (NCWA), Thailand became the first nation in the region to pass legislations that impose bigger fines on clients than on sellers for participation in trade sex with children (Shelley 2010). Application of the legislation has been light, but it is the foundation for future enforcement. The NCWA is more so striving to alter male sexual customs via a national poster drive with messages portraying a kid saying “my father does not visit prostitutes.”
The State Council, government agencies, and local party commissions of countries need to attach importance to tackling trafficking in persons like China does (Haerens 2012). In regions infested by the felony, leading institutions from the office of the procurator, the police, the civil departments, the courts, the media, women’s federations, schools and trade unions have a responsibility in tackling trafficking. Organizations of women assist government organizations through creating awareness among uneducated women who are most susceptible to being trafficked. Training courses and seminars are sponsored by such agencies to create awareness regarding policies and laws against trafficking (Brysk & Choi-fitzpatrick 2012).
National Alliance of Women’s Organizations in the Philippines, is vigorously engaged inawareness drives aimed at curbing the trafficking of girls and women from the country to other states or within the borders (Haker, Cahill & Wainwright 2011). Its plans are comprised of information dissemination and seminars to Government Agencies and NGOs and awareness drives at the community level. Furthermore, the Human Rights Commission in Cambodia has taken the lead to create understanding on the issue of trafficking at the local level. The Commission carries out valuable and extensive research across the nation, coordinates a countrywide workshop, and actively contributes to implementation and interpretations of the legislations regarding trafficking. In addition, the state offers schooling and shelters for street children and orphans to keep them away from human traffickers (Shelley 2010).
Criminalization of Human Trafficking
There should be a consensus and consistency around the globe on the issue of trafficking in people. Domestic law should be tailored in relation to domestic legal structures; however, it needs not to track the technique of the Trafficking in Persons Protocol accurately in order to offer an effect to the notions enclosed in the Protocol. Apart from the criminalization of trafficking, the Protocol more so needs criminalization of efforts to execute a trafficking offence, involvement as an accessory in such an offence and directing or organizing others to execute trafficking (Haker, Cahill & Wainwright 2011).
State law should incorporate a wider description of trafficking encompassed in the Protocol. The definition of the legislation should be flexible and dynamic in order to strengthen the legal framework that will effectively respond to human trafficking both within the country and across borders. The legislation should be one that is for a variety of exploitative reasons and not simply sexual manipulation, one that victimizes women, children, and men and not simply adults or women, but more so children and men and one that happens with or without the participation of organized criminal organizations (Haerens 2012).
UNODC gives practical assistance to countries, not only assisting to make legislations and develop complex countrywide anti-trafficking plans but more so helping with resources to put them into practice. Nations acquire specialized help comprising the development of local expertise and capacity, in addition to practical tools to support cross-border collaboration in prosecutions and investigations. In 2000, the adoption by the United Nations General Assembly of the legislation to suppress, prevent, and punish human trafficking, particularly children and women marked an important milestone in international attempts to curb the trade in humans. As the custodian of the law, UNODC tackles trafficking in persons concerns via its Global Programme against Trafficking in Persons. Many countries have presently ratified and signed the Protocol. However, transforming it into reality continues to be an issue. A small number of criminals are prosecuted, and most victims are usually never assisted or identified.
So as to curb human trafficking, states should take into consideration both supply and demand as the main cause. State Governments, Central Government and Union Territories, must also consider the issues that boost the susceptibility to trafficking, consisting of poverty, inequality and all kinds of prejudice and discrimination (Fisanick 2010). Efficient prevention methods should be founded on present accurate and experience data. States should analyze the aspects that create supply and demand for exploitative trade, sexual services and manipulative labor and having strong policy, legislative, and other measures to tackle these concerns. Agencies involved in enforcing the legislation need to be strengthened to prosecute and arrest people participating in human trafficking. Such will make sure that agencies enforcing the law meet their legal requirements.
States should devise essential methods for intensive harmonization between the police, judiciary, non-governmental organizations/civil society groups and government institutions with respect to combating and prevention methods (Fisanick 2010). Such methods of a government-public system would comprise and make the non-governmental organizations accountable to operate as informants and watchdogs on exploiters and traffickers. Finally, states need to consider adopting techniques to minimize susceptibility through making sure that suitable legal record for citizenship, birth, and marriage is availed to all individuals.