In the early-mid 19th century Karl Marx, together with German philosopher Friedrich Engels, pioneered specific social changes. This revolutionary social theory became known as Marxism. Marxism was a socioeconomic inquiry that relentlessly criticized capitalism. Marx sought to establish a harmonious socialist future. The spread of Marxism spurred the growth of diverse revolutionary global proportions. During the first half of the 20th century Marxist ideology seemed to have taken root in Europe. This was evident in the Bolshevik Revolution, experienced in Russia, and the growth of Communism in Eastern Europe. However, the revolution collapsed before the century ended. Almost the entire Europe embraced private property rights and trade exchange systems.

According to Marx, the social phenomena, such as political systems and social relations, rely on the economic framework of the state. In the same way, the social relations formed the basis of economic systems. As the process of production constantly improves, the existing social structures become inefficient. These inefficiencies evoke social contradictions in the form of class struggle. Capitalist mode of production builds a rivalry between the minority, who own the production process, and the majority, who produce the goods and services. This is the gap between the two classes. Marx perceived the system as oppression to the proletariat by the capitalists. This was the cradle of proletarian revolution. Marxism ideology has contributed towards the rise of political revolutions, such as the Cuban revolution (1959) and Cultural Revolution in China (1966-76), in a bid to oppose imperialism and capitalist elements.

The events perfectly correlate to conflict theory as a macro level evaluation of the society. Notwithstanding the fact that Marx is accredited to the conflict theory establishment as a component of the sociology paradigms, his own ideology is an epitome of conflict perspective as a sociological theory. It would be mindful to note that Marx was influenced to develop the ideology out of conditions experienced at the wake of the 19th century. The social, economic, and political policies, adapted by the capitalists, urged Marx to develop the Communist Manifesto.

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Deviance refers to the various behaviors that contradict with the social norms of the society. Such practices warrant disapproval from the mainstream community. The society strives to influence its members towards abiding by its norms through social control (Sociology Guide).

Behaviors that elicit negative criticism from the society are referred to as negative deviance, while acceptable moral codes are considered to be positive deviance. Diverse societies tend to react differently towards the practice of specific activities by its members. For example, homosexuality and racialism are bound to attract mixed reactions from various societies. Most Americans in the current society consider excessive alcoholism, rudeness in the public domain, theft or purchasing the services of prostitutes as negative deviance. Such activities are unacceptable both formally and informally by the members of the community. In its capacity, negative deviance may be criminal or non-criminal. The society finds it difficult to establish deviance standards because of its norms’ evolving nature (Clinard & Meier 22). Activities such as theft and the illegal drugs abuse are legally prohibited. However, activities such as failure to bathe are considered as negative deviance yet they are not legally barred. On the other hand, positive deviance is an activity that attracts the positive reaction from the society. For example, killing humans in the course of warfare to uphold defense is acceptable. Other activities that are deviant, but may elicit the positive reaction from the society, include sicknesses such as HIV, obesity or dwarfism. It would be imperative to realize that the social power cannot be alienated from the process of stipulating deviant lines.

The cloning of genetic deviations in the world out of its genetic pool through gene therapy or human cloning may elicit diverse sociological implications. Naturally, the existence of humans with physical disabilities or mental disorders is not considered deviant. If genetic deviations were inflicted to the human race, the society would not distant itself from any of its members. This would foster coherence. However, some deviant activities, inflicted to the human race, might be destructive. For example, one cannot imagine the upheaval that would arise if a negative deviance, such as theft, were inflicted to the human genetic pool.


Social Relations

According to social science, social relation could be described as the relationship between groups of people or individuals. This kind of relationship forms the basis for the establishment of the society. Consequently, the analysis of social science is based on social relations. Social relations bring forth the assumption that different events and multiple relationships form the basis of shaping people within the society. Therefore, it strives to explore human behavior and experience. The need to learn, as a way of appreciating connections between an individual and the various political, economic, and social factors, is an indispensable task in social relation (Mika & Gangemi). This experience proceeds in a continuous process throughout a person’s life. This way, it provides an opportunity for various relevant issues and relationships to be engaged. It is also useful in exploring the various dimensions of the relationship between humans.

As a multi-disciplinary approach, it draws various theoretical procedures in its analysis. It embraces the fact that important insights, which contribute in the behavior of individuals, are primarily concerned with sociology, anthropology, and psychology. Therefore, it would be important to consider these aspects in the process of evaluating a social relation network. Each of the aspects focuses on the life and behavior of an individual from a different perspective.

Analyzing the way in which relationships are made, maintained and transformed is imperative in enhancing efficient communication between individuals or groups of people. It would be mindful to consider social relation as a reliable and dynamic framework that would help one understand the lives and behavior of people. This would help professionals understand social relationships and human behavior.