Management Control and Accountability of Financial Resources

Product costing is defined as the methodology of the managerial accounting that is developed to determine the unit cost of production to provide supervision in an operational framework rather than measuring company’s performance like such. Even though, it is applied to any sort of price accounting, as well as merchandise costing, it contributes to general results. The process of product costing involves the studying and tracking every kind of the diverse expenditures in the manufacturing and retailing of merchandise. Also it includes analysis of a range of costs, starting from the costs of purchased unprocessed materials to even costs coupled with shipping the ultimate merchandise to vend establishments.

More particularly product costing is used to establish the price of a unit of manufacture or a service by studying each resource that was utilized in the process of its creation. The process of product costing simply adds fractions of costs by acquiring a precise ending cost that integrates all the contributing streams. To some extend it is seen as a means of categorizing components of cost that is able to be addressed exclusively so as to take out cost from the product by packaging, retooling, reengineering, redesign, purchasing, and additional interventions by organization at whatever phase. This methodology is extensively considered as an exceedingly significant component in planning and evaluating overall commerce strategies. In fact it’s argued that perfect product costing in the current world has risen to become a critical component to business survival bearing in mind that the business market has become extremely competitive.

Consequently, costing systems are defined as plans that provide information regarding the worth of work expressed in hours as well as statistics of the units of work. With the assistance of information like product charge, the company’s managers can create assessment of cost connected with diverse actions undertaken in the business. Costing is fundamental for each organization, as all the departments have to be allocated with precise budget for appropriate operation. The costing system gives data that is helpful for managers to reduce waste and assign resources to various departments.

Assessment of costs is prepared with the assistance of two systems identified as Traditional and Activity based costing. The traditional cost arrangement was build up by the General Motors organization. The corporation used this structure to compute the overall manufacturing expenditure which incorporated all the expenses associated to single operations. Nevertheless, the charge that is mostly significant to business is profitability, which seemingly is necessary for refining the competitiveness. Therefore, this cost evaluation is prepared by activity based costing. The fundamental beginning of activity based cost arrangement is that the business is an incorporated development and functions when there is appropriate bring in of parts as well as raw resources at particular plants. This continues till the ultimate good gets to the client.
The traditional cost structure is founded on the features such as miscellaneous, operating expenses, fixed charges, and depreciations, travelling allowances, supplies, employee benefits, salaries and wages.

Product costing was developed in a setting of large scale production in the late 20th century as a result of the increasing administrative concentration on maximizing the production utility. Traditional financial bookkeeping advances have continually been found on dimensions of comparatively rough scale of data. For formative corporate productivity, it is adequate usually to follow energy inputs, tooling, labour, and raw materials and eventually compute these into manufacturing costs. Pricing of various products normally required finer differences so that expenses connected with categories of merchandise would be accessible as a base for disparity pricing. Further on, product costing developed from this position by passing on a suitable proportion of overall operating cost, as well calculating extra costs upstream like delivery, warehousing and packaging.

 Merchandise costing information act was adopted in response to developers, and is applied in production management to recognize superlative workflow, manipulate the procurement of tooling, and if they are effectively utilized in accurate pricing of commodities. Product costing has extensively been applied in most regular production actions, together with service activities, even though the intensity of aspect sought is inconsistent and typically resolute by the mass of the process. Still, in moderately small businesses, several stage of product quotation is accomplished in that management process that generally includes analysis of the expenses associated with imperative functions acknowledged with various products.

In current years product quotation has set boost to the Activity Based Costing (ABC). ABC is generally established on the concept that expenses come up from diverse activities. The Activity Based estimate model is established on the theory that it isn’t the goods that a corporation produces that create costs, it is  rather the actions that are carried out in production, procuring, and planning of the products. It’s the capital that is essential to sustain the activities executed during the line of trade that ends up in costs being acquired. Product costs, for that reason, must be premeditated by determining the amount to which every product utilizes the actions being carried out. It’s duly noted that products make use of activities, whereas activities use costs. ABC might be a further refined technique for accurately capturing business inputs that are related with operating cost functions in numerous operations, like design and engineering.

Absorption/Traditional Costing

Absorption costing which is sometimes termed as full absorption costing is a methodology of managerial cost accounting which is applied in expensing every cost connected with producing a specific product. Absorption costing utilizes the overall overhead and direct costs linked with producing merchandise as the charge base. Direct costs include the raw resources applied in the manufacturing of a product as well as the wages awarded to the personnel who are physically involved in the manufacturing process. On the other hand, overhead costs are the collective utility costs incurred during the production. The Generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) need absorption quotation for exterior coverage.

In addition, absorption costing adds up everything that is a straight cost in manufacture of merchandise. Also, absorption costing is endorsed by the supporters for the prospect benefits provided. Absorption quotation is, consequently, dissimilar from the supplementary costing systems as it gets into account preset producing operating cost including expenses like amortization, utilities, and factory rent. It is, furthermore, complex to consider in the preset manufacturing operating cost expenses into calculating the per unit charge of merchandise, which aren’t explained for by supplementary techniques such as Variable costing.

Absorption costing technique has a wide range of associated merits which include, contrasting marginal quotation and this involves the change of fixed cost to get varied cost. It’s charged into the collection value, hence, altering the stock estimation. Also, this technique is commonly used in the preparation of financial accounts. Moreover, it recognizes the significance of the fixed costs concentrated in production. In the occurrence of constant production with irregular sales, the methodology illustrates less changeability in net earnings. This method doesn’t undervalue the stock, thus, it is highly acknowledged by Inland Revenue.

However the Absorption Costing method has a few drawbacks. For instance, like the system stresses on overall cost which entails both the fixed and variable costs, therefore, it is really not practical for organization to apply it in the process of making decisions, planning and control. Further, in view of the fact that the executive accentuate on the overall cost, this makes the cost quantity profit correlation to be overlooked. The executives of the company, as a result, wish to use their perception for resolution making.

Activity Based Costing

Activity based costing is a methodology of accounting which is formed to grant manager with charge data and other aspects that probably affect capacity. This method is applied in determining product expenses for administration report and it is commonly featured as a comprehensive approach applied to the corporation’s costing structure. Generally there are 2 activity based costing structures that a good number of organizations use, namely the official costing arrangement that is utilized in preparing external fiscal reports, and also the activity based costing structure that is employed in managing activity and internal resolution making. This enables the corporation to evaluate the rate on their utilization of activities and resources.

The key undertaking of activity based costing is exclusively break out oblique activities into group that are able to be consigned to practices in an approach which is superior and reveals the way expenses are essentially incurred. In this method, it measures variables such as services, equipment, space, labour and materials used up by activities. The expenditures connected to activities then bring out the quantity of resources that the business utilized per element of activities.

The fundamental postulation of activity based costing is completely dissimilar from that is seen in other conservative costing systems. The traditional costing system presupposes that products manufactured by a company usually cause costs. Whereas the Activity based costing arrangement clearly outlines activities as the primary cost objects. This methodology also presumes that the activities undertaken all through the company cause expenses and, moreover, that the cost of objects generate the claim for activities.

Activity based costing is altogether a diverse approach to accounting and it actually improves the control of expenses by a cause/cost affiliation, that are coat and activity. The arrangement is elastic enough to recount costs to management responsibility, processors, customers and not merely products. As the naming of the methodology recommends, activity based costing is a structure that extensively centres on activities as the fundamental cost things and applies the expenses of these activities as structure blocks for bringing together the expenses of added cost items. Employing an activity based costing arrangement can also facilitate a company to build up a technique to justify and analyze production cycle-time enhancements.

The utilization of activity based costing advanced over the past number of years from a further exact technique of product quotation, to a more systematic technique of cost diminution, to an all acceptance highly developed planning, control, and monitoring system, surrounding activity reporting, reengineering of business process, sector and customer/product profitability, continuous improvement, benchmarking and performance management, activity based financial planning, activity based cost administration, as well as activity based costing. Therefore, it is highly important to note down that in the activity based costing technique the costs are allocated entirely to activities. The obligation is supported on the expenditure of resources consumed.

In making use of the activity based costing, expenses are brought together for every activity as an autonomous cost item. These expenses are then reflected to merchandise as they go through the various activities. The absolute product price is put up from the expenses of the particular activities that every merchandise line has gone through. In additional terminology activity based costing allocates activity expenses to cost items based on action drivers that precisely measures utilization of the activity.  When employing the activity based costing arrangement managers try to consign the overheads of noteworthy activities to the goods that make those expenses to be acquired. These consequences in activity based costing provide adequate information to permit managers to identify which actions bring about the utilization of resources the most effectively.

The mainly widespread advance to activity based costing initiate with some sort of action examination, followed by action based quotation which is afterward employed to generate performance enhancement thoughts. Activity based costing is consequently the following of activity expenses to cost items. These cost items can be distribution channels, customers, projects, services, or products. When used appropriately, this methodology will reduce the problem of cost misrepresentation by creating a cost group for every action that can be secluded as a charge driver.

Performance enhancement systems ought to also incorporate activity based costing, performance evaluation, activity grouping, and cost driver examination. A charge driver is described as the derivation cause or grounds for an action to transpire. It is imperative to observe that a charge driver must not be misconstrued as a productivity measure. A productivity measure is termed as a scale measure quantifying how various outputs an action produces. It’s the productivity measure that ought to be tracked to the charge object.

In the arrangement of activity based costing, operating cost expenses are given to a big amount of cost group that corresponds to the mainly noteworthy activities implicated in the manufacture process. It is well established that the activity based costing structure utilizes some oblique cost pools for the reason of the numerous activity areas.

After assigning expenses to the action cost pools, charge drivers are recognized that are appropriate for every cost pool. Once the operating cost expenses are co-signed, information from every action cost group to every manufacture job in percentage to the quantity of action is utilized by the job. The enhanced product quotation precision in action based costing emanates from the recognition of a huge number of action cost groups and the segregation of an appropriate charge driver for every activity. When employing the activity based costing, the central spot is on income and the actions that bring them. Thus, no longer there is a need for separation between period and product costs as characterized by monetary accounting.

The significance of the accurate activity categorization highlights that activity categorization should at all times comprise some sort of cost added or non cost added examination, and more outstandingly all personnel involved in categorizing activities must comprehend these definitions. The accepted designation of a non cost added action is any thing that can be eradicated devoid of loss to the ultimate product. Even though activity categorization is prejudiced, it is merely a means to assist with performance enhancement.


Even as activity based costing isn’t an ideal discipline, it does present logic of monetary expediency to the wider administration process. The preliminary basis that action analysis can emphasize waste as well as bureaucracy has made the activity based methodologies to being utilized for basic cost reduction performance measurement, benchmarking, reengineering, and process improvement, and a diversity of correlated exercises together with priority or activity based budgeting.

The three creations of activity based costing complement and supplement one another and individual arrangement ought not to be deemed the substitute of whichever of the other two. The first invention focuses on merchandise costing, the subsequent one on performance evaluation or process costing while the third approach is focused on worth chain quotation to be applied in strategic examination. All the three make use of similar activities database; dissimilarity lies in the nature of relation and the degree to which information on what actions is to be collected.