Jews in Jerusalem
John 10: 22 – 30 is a rejection story of Jesus by the Jews in Jerusalem being accused of blasphemy. The Jews during Jesus” time had created an expectation of their Messiah, one who would act more like Moses. Jesus” actions fulfilled the old testaments prophesies but the Jews wanted to hear Jesus declare that He was indeed the son of God.
According to the Bible Dictionary
In the Bible, the book John 10: 22 – 30 speaks about the festival that is modernly known as Hanukkah.This festival used to take place for about 8 days in mid-December. It was about the rededication of the temple due to the succession of Judas Macabbeus from the reign of Antiochus IV Epiphanes. The latter leader forced paganism amongst Jews and the temple had been turned to a pagan shrine.
In verse 24, which is thought to be true, the Pharisees were trapping Jesus with their questions, and they did not have faith in the truth of Jesus being the Messiah. The Pharisees wanted Him to directly acknowledge his oneness with God because Jesus was just not fitting their expectations of a Messiah. In verse 25, Jesus ascertains them that his deeds verify Him as the son of God. Verse 28 has strong words where Jesus declares owning those who follow Him. He demonstrates evidences of this by great perseverance and character of a true God. Finally, Jesus declares his unity with His Father, and to the Pharisees, this was blasphemy.
The writer brings out vividly his ideas of the situations, he uses words such as: “if” in verse 24, which brings out the doubt in the Pharisees” questions; “tell us” is a statement in which they use and it bring out authority or demand.