Individual Project 4. Biology

Organ Systems

The structure of human body is well-organized and has highly developed biology of its organ systems. Moreover, every system of organism is not separate but has a profound connection with others, because it cannot work without collaboration necessary for the whole body existence. Of course, each system of the body includes organs responsible for its circulation and functioning. There are many different processes inside every organ system, as well as among all the systems. Hence, all organs of the body have peculiar interactions. It is called homeostasis, the cycle of operations which keep the body in balance. The ability of organs to assist the functions of other organs is very important feature (Beers, 2006).

There are ten main organ systems in the human body: circulatory, digestive, endocrine, integumentary, muscular, nervous, reproductive, respiratory, skeletal and urinary/excretory. Let us see the example of the cardiovascular system. It works with the help of the heart, lots of blood vessels and, accordingly, means ‘cardio’ and ‘vascular’. The cardiovascular system is responsible for blood pumping and delivery of oxygen and many substances to all kind of human cells (Beers, 2006). It means that the heart gives all necessary for further movement of the rest of nine organ systems, and in their turn, they support the work of the heart. Similarly, the digestive system, including primary (mouth, stomach, intestines and rectum) organs and accessory (teeth, tongue, liver and pancreas) organs gives energy to the body, in the aftermath of complicated activities (Bailey, 2012). For instance, when organism gains too much meal to refine, it “needs more blood to perform its functions. Therefore, it enlists the aid of the cardiovascular system and the nervous system” (Beers, 2006). In any case, disbalance of any human organ can either cause a slight illness or even lead to death. Generally, the respiratory system is dominant in gas exchange in organism. In order to compare, even plants have it, when give off oxygen during the day, but at night produce carbon dioxide. The feeding of every cell is possible with aid of human breathing including inhale and exhale, taking oxygen and emitting carbon dioxide. Going through the nose and mouth, air attains the trachea and travels down the bronchial tubes and reaches the final main organs of respiratory, lungs. There are a lot of “thin-walled sacs richly supplied with capillaries”, where exchange between two gases takes place in the blood (health-cares.net, 2005). In addition, the number of alveoli in both lungs reaches 700 millions. They are surrounded by many capillaries, and, as a result, carbon dioxide goes into the alveoli but oxygen into the bloodstream.

Case Study 2

Having studied the situation of Mr. Amos, who now is not a young man, but has been smoking for the past 30 years, it is not unexpected to get confirmed diagnosis of metastatic cancer of the third stage. It belongs to the malfunction of respiratory organs, his lungs, and can lead to lethal end of the patient. It is not yet about an obstructive lung disease with chronic symptoms. Mr. Amos has evidently got tumor of big size with its impact on tissues. Lymph nodes are affected, too, and can be bigger than 6-7 cm. They are responsible for fluids and white blood cells keeping the immune system. Cancer of the 3rd stage has obviously spread its metastases to the tissues of another lung to produce a tumor. The statistic said that tobacco was the leading cause of the range of such illness as asthma, tuberculosis, pneumonia and others. Furthermore, every year lung cancer takes lives of 443,000 cigarette users in the USA (National Cancer Institute, 2010). Exactly smoking causes not only cancer of lungs, but also cancer of the throat, nasal cavity esophagus, mouth, stomach and many other organs. At the same time, smokers often suffer from the heart attack and get big general health risks. These consequences are logical, because they form the basis for the following facts:

1. However, smoke includes a tobacco product with carbon-monoxide. This chemical composition has the ability to fasten itself to the hemoglobin of the blood. Hence, it deprives oxygen from the body cells. Moreover, cigarette wrap contains the dried tobacco leaves, which together with other chemicals are good for combustion. In the emitted smoke there are many carcinogens: nitrous oxides, hydrogen cyanide and cadmium, besides 4000 of other toxic chemicals. There is tar on the top of a cigarette, and it usually causes worsening of teeth and skin. It also has a portion of dangerous carcinogen benzopyrene. The hot cigarette smoke irritates tender mucosas of the nasal and tracheal passages. Accordingly, smokers often have throat inflammation. Another example of malfunction is cilia clogging, when a cilia loses its fluidity. It occurs along the nasal passage, as well as trachea (Quit Your Smoking Addiction, 2010).

2. The quantity of carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke is really high. It can provoke heart attacks, because while smoking carbon monoxide goes into the human blood. It attaches to the receptor sites with oxygen and immediately ejects it out of these red blood cells. Hence, previously normal hemoglobin transfers into carboxyhemoglobin and cannot deliver oxygen. As a result, a smoker has hypoxia: his/her brain and organs of the body get not enough oxygen. Furthermore, red cells become weak in elimination of carbon dioxide, which is very harmful. Then the amount of red cells in the smoker’s blood increases, because the organism has chronic deprivation of oxygen. This condition is called polycythemia (Smoking Cessation, 2012).

3. Doubtless smoking causes diseases of not only respiratory system but also affects all the organs inside of the human body. Dysfunction of breathing can lead to gasping that can trouble the function of the heart, hence, cause high blood pressure. It is a chain of operations. The state of viscera is often obvious when looking at the person’s skin, his or her complexion or color of sclera, for instance. Anyway, the smoker is not healthy.

4. Cellular respiration presupposes the release of energy by cells from the chemical ties of food molecules, ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Cellular respiration is possible with the help of glucose, which synthesizes ATP. There are two types of respiration: aerobic, possible only with oxygen, and anaerobic, without it. Oxygen plays very important role, because it joints with hydrogen atoms and forms water but previously it belonged to glucose molecule. Carbon dioxide remains after this process. Actually, the respiratory system provides oxygen, and cellular respiration eliminates the waste product (HyperPhysics).

5. Nierengarten (2007) made a reference to Day and said that smokeless tobacco can increase the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer. Such products are not free from human harm, and it is a big mistake to support the idea of its innocent character (ENTtoday). However, it has less lung cancer risk.

Part 2 (DB)

Development in the sphere of medicine and genetic engineering based on different biological researches has brought great positiveness to people in resistance to many infections and pests. Moreover, people are used to use these specific techniques in human treatment, as well as in farming and agriculture, and it is practically impossible to live without it. There are a lot of changes belonging to general human evolution. They are evident in the resistance of antibiotics and human immunodeficiency virus to drugs, and ability of plants and insects to be ready to fight with pesticides (Palumbi, 2001). Actually, it is a result of mutation. Bacteria are easy to change their DNA with each new generation. The author (2001) added that every year it takes about $33 – $50 billion in the USA. From the time when Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin it evolved the revolution in medicine. After all, it became the well-used and widely-produced medical product which saved many lives. Yet, a little later resistant bacteria appeared. But this achievement has its two sides. The scientists said, “By confronting bacteria with antibiotics, we select for those that are resistant and change the course of their evolution” (Sumans, Inc., 2012). The same situation is obvious in farming and growing plants. It presupposes specific chemicals which can effectively kill a sort of pests. Nevertheless, it cannot be considered as a 100% result. The insects or other kinds of pests survived are “genetically predisposed” to further existence (Bellinger, 1996). Their genes have been under mutation, and now they are more resistant. As much as population is under affect of pesticide, the faster occurs the resistance in its genes (Bellinger, 1996). It is an ongoing circle: when one population is almost totally affected, but some survived and alive individuals create new descendants. For example, the apple growers in North America have a big problem with pesticide resistance, because there is “streptomycin resistance in the fire blight bacterium and benomyl resistance in the apple scab pathogen” (Haney, 2011). Generally, the process of selection has influenced directly and effectively, as well. The scientists are still trying to find the way out from this problem, and they have recently proposed a technique called “negative cross-resistance” (ScienceDaily, 2001). It includes the usage of repeated pesticides in a definite way to kill the pests. They also give the power to biocide, which specifically stops different insects or other pests. Two biocides together would be very effective. Still, there are many pests that are harmful not only to agriculture but they influence the human health, for example mosquitoes, rats and many other insects and rodents. Hence, the problem of the pests’ fast renewal, even several times during short period of time often causes poor environment for people. Nevertheless, nobody can deny natural processes. People have begun to interfere into natural selection and disturbed its balance. It is time to get results. For instance, now there are more than 500 species of insects and mites resistant to any chemicals, as well as 270 species of weed and 150 pathogens of plants that are resistant to pesticides. In addition, such pests as rats with their half dozen species can be secure, too. The importance of combating resistance is evident. It includes the usage of different pesticides with different chemicals including definitely unusual set of actions against pests (Bellinger, 1996). It is not the best way to substitute one chemical gathering for another, but it is a good opportunity for people. The author (1996) was talking about National Agricultural Pesticide Impact Assessment Program (NAPIAP), initiated in 1976. The main aim is broad monitoring and investigation in the sphere of prevention of pests, as well as their killing. Haney (2011) supported the idea of less chemical way, namely “pheromone mating disruption and cultural controls”. After all, people should be rational with natural resources, as well as other living-beings in order to keep natural balance and circulation.