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History of Slovenia

INTRODUCTION:

The Slovenia country can be termed to one of the youngest countries in Europe to gain independence. It gained independence in the year 1991 after a ten days war, which was after the collapse of the Yugoslavia federation. It is officially known as the republic of Slovenia, it is largely mountainous and almost half the land is forested with mountains interspersed with glacial lakes and large beautiful farm lands. Slovenia borders the Mediterranean and touches the Alps. To the south west Slovenia borders the Adriatic Sea which is said to be the lowest point of Slovenia and Italy to the west, it also borders Austria on the north, and Hungary is on the northeast. Slovenia covers a very large area of around 20,275 square kilometers it’s hilly and has plains spread across the eastern and central regions, on good example is Mount Triglav, which has the highest peak, rises to 9,393 ft or 2,864 m. being a big country the population of approximately 2.07 million people.

The largest city of Slovenia which is the capital city is known as Ljubljana. It is a large and attractive city with a large student population which makes the city vibrant and also the old historic buildings. The beautiful river that flows through the city known as Ljubljana the beauty of this river is rejuvenated by the small shops, beautiful hotels and the promenade lined up on the river bank.  A big percentage of the society of Slovenia speaks the country’s official language which is Slovene; Italian and Hungarian languages are also local and official to Slovenia society. The people in Slovenia are said to be accommodating and genuine. The country enjoys Mediterranean climate on the coast, cold winters in the plateaus, valleys to the east and continental climate with mild to hot summers all this adds to the beauty. (History of Slovenia)

There are two very important symbols used in the Slovenia country the chamois and the linden tree, the European antelope the two of them are very common throughout the country. This brings us to the very important icon of every country which is the flag. The flag of Slovenia has three horizontal bands that follows a system that is white on the top, blue at the centre and at the bottom is the colour red and it also has a shield on the upper left. . (History of Slovenia)

There are three White Mountain peaks with three gold and six pointed stars above stars on this are visible on the shield. The flag is a symbol of unity in Slovenia and also very respected.

A large population of Slovenia is mainly Roman Catholics; the rest is other Christianity and the rest although many are secular many of the public holidays are mainly Christian or religious in nature.th society of Slovenia really values culture in every way as from greetings whereby for example while greeting guests they do not use their first names unless they are close or family members. . (History of Slovenia)

They have a culture whereby they can go out of their way to adapt what the people they are interacting with are doing. Slovenians are said to be indirect communicators naturally but they are able interact quickly with people of other cultures who are better or direct communicators than them. . (History of Slovenia)

This easy adaptation makes them easy to work or live with. Slovenia has a lot of public holidays and they also prepare special foods on special occasions. The Slovenia culture is very wide and interesting and would require a very a large writing other than this.

Like most countries Slovenia has not been left behind in the tourism industry although it was affected by the war at some point but it has really rejuvenated as the years go by. Slovenia is a country that is scenic safe and clean and therefore considered as the most suitable destination for couples and tourist and even families. Those tourist or families that enjoy outdoor activities that is caving, mountaineering hiking and white water rafting this and many more boost the economy of Slovenia in a big way.

Natural resources are the main exports in Slovenia e.g. timber, coal and mercury. Others are mainly agricultural products it is also involved with Industry production which falls in the categories of chemical products textiles, food product, metal products and transport equipment’s. For a country to maintain this good relationship between imports and exports product standards have to be regulated and checked to provide satisfaction of the goods or services provided. Therefore a neutral organ is present to be able to do this work effectively which is known as TBT and is present everywhere in the world.

The term TBT is simply the initials of Technical Barriers to Trade; TBT tries in every way to ensure that standards,   regulations, testing and certification procedures do not create unnecessary obstacles. TBT also ensures that all the citizens in a country have their all products well checked for quality and right quantity each country has their own code for TBT in most occasions this standards if not followed may cause lots of trouble to the suppliers and therefore it helps to regulate the goods or products being given even through exports and imports all over the world. Slovenia the TBT is done by Slovenian Institute for Standardization initials are SIST.

The administrative arrangement for the agreement of TBT is renewed every three years in almost every country the agreement always focuses on the issues transparency, simplicity, consistency, and assessment procedures and goods regulatory practices. The agreement ensures that standards and technical regulations which includes labeling requirements marking, packaging and all the crucial procedures of assessment of fulfillment.

The implementation of the agreement continues has always been followed to the letter on all the exports and even imports to the country this is to guarantee that no country should be prohibited from taking measures necessary to ensure the quality of its exports. It also ensures that no country should be prevented from taking measures the aim of protecting the security of goods. The implementation of the TBT makes sure that all the products either agricultural or industrial are subjected to the provisions of the agreement.

The government bodies are supposed to prepare specifications for consumption or production requirements and some of this provision does not apply to all products e.g. phytosanitary. In Slovenia requirements of safety of the Slovenia products like yarns, textile leather and clothing so as to ensure protection for those intended for contact with direct skin. Safety test are taken should be demonstrated by the manufacturer importer or the supplier.

For a country to understand the TBT issues the a lot has been done not only Slovenia but to all countries awareness has to be created because there is a very significant growth of standards and technical regulations that are being adapted by countries this is noted due to the increased standards of living worldwide this has therefore demanded for the high quality products, air pollution problems of water which has caused the society to demand conservational products. There is also the understanding of Conformity evaluation measures are technical procedures such as examination, testing, substantiation, and certification this is done in order to prove that products perform the requirements laid down in regulations and standards.( Omeni, 23) In General, exporters bear the cost, that is incase there are any, of these procedures. Non-transparent and biased compliance evaluation procedures can become successful protectionist tools.

Problems experienced because of TBT measures in export markets their are many problems experienced  this is are for example increase in price of products or services due to the high quality of required standards of packaging this is a problem to the customer and also the supplier. There are also issues like some of the writings that are supposed to be inscribed on the product as a regulation required by the governing authority. (

The needs assessment for international standards are very important for the implementation of the TBT service transparency which include publication and communication of notices, notifications, draft principles remarks, adopted standards or work programmes electronically, through the internet, where practical, is seen to provide a valuable means of ensuring the timely provision of valuable information.  On the other hand, it is also documented that the indispensable technical means is usually not available in some cases, especially with consideration to advancing countries.

The Assessment for international standards is more displayed by Openness of the dissemination of standards, effectiveness and relevance and development dimensions. (Nabokov, 45) Participation in international standards setting organizations this has been seen through the very many meetings and conferences attended in order to ensure that this laws are followed to the letter and also to create new regulations for the many upcoming products in the world. Slovenia has been involved in the meetings due to the many products it is producing. (Nabokov 47)

The Slovenian institute of standard SIST covers a few fields  research and acceptance of the Slovenian national standards and standardization documents, dynamic involvement in international organizations and demonstration of national interests at the international level, giving information services and notifications under the TBT/WTO Agreement, advertising standards and standardization credentials, providing education in the field of standardization, promoting standardization actions, maintaining and  updating and standards databases. (Kiito, 43)

There are very many issues that deal with TBT like the Administrative arrangements with international standard-setting organizations this is supposed to ensure and encourage standards setting bodies to acknowledge the code of good practice, application and adoption of standards.(Kiito, 45) There is also the Conformity Assessment Procedures which entail Technical maintenance for the enhancement of technical infrastructure of government authoritarian agencies for trying & calibration laboratories for a dependable certification system that will build the self-confidence of the trading partners.  Reviews and follow-ups of technical infrastructure advancement activities have also to be undertaken.

TBT has proven to be a long-lasting authority and fulfilling to all the set rules and aim of protecting the health and safety of human beings, the animal and plant life, prevention of deceptive practices that may lead to unsatisfactory products being exported.