Global health is a sphere of study and practice, which emphasizes the improvement of health and the achievement of equity in health care delivery for all people worldwide. It covers health matters that concern political, economic, and global impact. Health delivery is a significant issue the core problem of which is a disparity that impedes the delivery of qualitative healthcare services. The following paper is basing on the profound analysis of the global healthcare policy and health care delivery underlining the global health learning in nursing, identification of the disparities, the study of the guidance for the problem solution, and healthcare availability that provided deeper understanding of the sense of the problems as well as identification of its possible solutions.
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Historical Perspectives of Global Health Learning in Nursing
Nowadays, medical centers give the priority to the development of global health diplomacy and focus on the nurses’ practice that concerns the global health issues helping medical employees to assume the new role. For example, nurses from numerous geographic locations are able to work in partnership with other professionals thus applying transdisciplinary initiatives with the aim of improving the health of society and supporting human rights (Dr. Holtz, 2016). Such approach helped the nurses from Latin America to obtain substantial familiarity with international health efforts including social justice needs (Dr. Holtz, 2016).
Operation of World Health Organization (WHO) is one of the representatives that work on the solutions to problems of Global Health. The organization was established after the World War II as an agency that worked with the intergovernmental issues and focused on the coordination of the worldwide health activities. During the lasts years, the organization directed its forces to collaboration with Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization, the Global Tuberculosis partnership, and Global Fung on HIV/AIDS. The development of such new approaches bases on the involvement of nurses (Cassel & Guest, 2012). Thus, medical employees can apply the gained knowledge on practice and further share the experience with other nurses.
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The Importance of Health Care Disparities Solution
Health care disparity is a crucial issue that consists in the unequal treatment of minorities and subsequent formation of inconsistencies between the rich and the poor. One of the significant derivatives of the problem occurrence is a great number of stereotypes, prejudice, biases, and medical uncertainty that contribute to the appearance of the disparities all over the world (Braveman et al., 2011). The analysis of the crucial issue demonstrated that Hispanics, African Americans, and Asians belong to the group of people displaying the lowest satisfaction with health care in the U.S. The disparities also affect the patients insured by the private companies as well as those who are beneficiaries of the public funding. The study of the global care showed that the citizens of the high-income country have more chances to live until 76 years old. On the contrary, the period of life of the average person who lives in the low-income country is usually not longer than 60 years (Cassel & Guest, 2012). Such a phenomenon is connected with financial abilities of a person. Thus, a wide range of inconsistencies proves the significance of the issue and the high necessity of its extirpation since all people have equal rights and require quality treatment (Braveman et al., 2011).
Healthy People 2020 and Other Regulatory Guidelines
Healthy People is a program that focuses on the improvement of health of minorities and the people with low-income level of life (Addison et al., 2016). During the past two decades, one of the most crucial goals of the program was to work with the existing disparities. Therefore, Healthy People 2020 accentuated the achievement of health care equity, elimination of the inconsistencies, and the improvement of health of all groups of people (Addison et al., 2016). The program emphasizes the achievement of health equity by providing the qualitative medical care to all minorities and extirpating the historical injustice. Another crucial program relies on the collaboration of Guidelines International Networks (G-I-N) and the four leading organizations in the dissemination and production of evidences for making the decision in the global health and creating the specific guidelines basing on the social and economic policies (Addison et al., 2016). The plan includes organization of the “Global Evidence Summit” in 2017 that will focus on the improvement of health, reduction of disparities, and application of the cost-effective interventions (Addison et al., 2016).
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Moral Issues in Global Healthcare
The formation of the global initiatives demands a review of moral and ethical values. In 2003, the director of WHO Lee Long-Wook asserted that ethical vision should be the core of the global health. Hence, political commitment and technical excellence have no values without ethical purpose. As the result, the schools of thought are basing on the six crucial initiatives (Dr. Holtz, 2016). The first one is humanitarism that gives the priority to the virtuous actions in relation to the people in need. The phenomenon is basing on empathy, altruism, and compassion. The second initiative is utilitarism which implies maximizing the happiness of people by improving their health with help of society that should advocate the interests of the individual (Dr. Holtz, 2016). The third is equity, which should be reached by means of fair distribution of health capabilities ensuring that all people within the society have equal and fair chances of having good health. The forth initiative is the right that implies the fulfillment of obligations in the way that supports human rights and dignity. The fifth one comprises knowledge and the institutions that maintain the basis for further study and development of the new health mediations and technologies (Dr. Holtz, 2016). Finally, the sixth initiative consists in advocacy groups and consensus which are in powerful political positions and share the desire to support health policies established for others within the society (Dr. Holtz, 2016).
Healthcare Productivity and Economic Costs
Modern healthcare in the U.S. is focusing on the changes in payment methodology, organizations of the providers’ work, and insurance market. Such efforts create a stem of the health care system formation (Arora, Moriates, & Shah, 2015). Even though the service is very expensive, its quality is of the highest level when compared to other countries. Productivity is the measure of healthcare quality per unit of healthcare dollar that measures the economic efficiency (Arora, Moriates, & Shah, 2015). The improvement of productivity demands the reduction of costs and maintenance of volume, or the increase of production and maintenance of costs.
The analysis of financial aspects demonstrated that the growth of population and the increase of the number of individuals with chronic diseases require high-costs and more qualitative technologies. Such a phenomenon implies the raise of the costs burden on the individual consumer (Arora, Moriates, & Shah, 2015). For many years, American model relied on the provision of payments to the institutions of care basing on the diagnosis and the procedure of visits. The significant goal of every hospital is the management of healthcare service in order to optimize payments by assuring that the care is targeted toward specific diseases (Arora, Moriates, & Shah, 2015). The ideal system implies utilization of the payment system at all levels. The design of the payment system should ground on shifting more financial responsibility to the customer so as to reduce expenditures and decrease utilization avoiding the negative effect or the formation of barriers to the utilization of the preventive care (Arora, Moriates, & Shah, 2015).
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Availability of Healthcare Providers (ARNPs, RNs, and Physicians)
ARNPs, RNs, and physicians are all healthcare providers, whose main aim consists in consulting and giving effective treatment to every person regardless of their financial abilities, sexuality, and ethnicity (Chen, Vargas-Bustamante, Mortensen, & Ortega, 2016). However, there is the range of barriers that might complicate the availability of care providers, namely social determinants, which include cultural obstacles, biological influence, and the problems with interactions between the patients, nurses, as well as the level of client’s income. The majority of patients do not know English, which becomes a real problem for all specialists that impede the efficient delivery of the information (Chen et al., 2016). The above described problems are also connected to the absence of health insurance. Approximately 50% of Hispanics, who live in the U.S. and whose age is less than 66 years, admitted that they were not insured for several past years. Another significant problem relates to the financial abilities of patients (Chen et al., 2016). Many people with low income search for the alternative treatment or may even resort to asking help from non-specialists with the aim to save money.
The analysis of the Global healthcare policy and healthcare delivery proved that both have the number of peculiar aspects that demand constant control and implementation of specific strategy. Significant support for health care development consists in specific guidelines, which are aimed at the achievement of equity of health care provision, elimination of disparities, and the improvement of health of all groups and thus help medical organizations to build their work appropriately. Racial and economic factors are other significant aspects, which tend to complicate the availability of health care providers to the minorities, and require the implementation of specific approach, since only strong collaboration can eliminate the problems of health care delivery.