Elmwood Hospital Exercise Analysis

Leadership is a terminology with diverse meanings but the primary definition is that it’s the capability to adapt the situation so each person feels empowered to have a say resourcefully to resolving the problems. Leadership dwells in ability where a leader has the competence to accomplish something through skill and talent. Talent is innate aptitude whereas skill is expertise gained through exercise and training. Leadership encompasses numerous aspects like empowering people, motivating, audacity, positive, reliable, and even visionary but most of these aspects lack in public leadership where someone becomes a leader simply because he/she is greedy for power which leads to autocracy (Wart & Dicke, 20080).

Public leadership has been argued out for a long time about its uniqueness from other forms of leaderships. This is so because in public leadership there gathers wide range of research agendas and leadership paradigms which need to be followed in order to term him/her competent leader. For instance, a major uniqueness emanates from the aspect of the appropriate focus which barely states what leaders need to focus on during their posts as leaders which majorly surround technical performance as well as organizational alignment. Leaders are expected to make things done through ensuring technical issues are handled appropriately, maintaining effectiveness and efficiency by employing various controls, providing training and resources required for production, maintaining good systems, as well as coordinating functional operations (Mathew).

Public leaders’ play more roles in enacting management orientation rather than change orientation through some of them are seen to play quite a considerable change role thus forming a unique aspect in the leadership form. Moreover in this kind of leadership, there is inclusion of citizens/clients/customers as well as the public good commonly. This makes people state that the common good together with external constituencies are majorly important in the public leadership.

There have been numerous debates on the significance of leadership where some put across arguments in regard to democratic theory where they argue that public leaders ought not to be seen as significant following a strictly political perception, where many public scholars basically assert or assume the value of public leaders. In addition, there has been a predisposition to assume every situation where leadership is vital as a solitary monolith, actually rather than looking at the implications of varied types of leadership in various contexts with different environmental constrains, accountability mechanisms, organizational structures, missions, and so on. Hence this indicates that the machinery of leadership is greatly less expressed on the public precinct area that the private one.

Leadership has engulfed even the world of public administration where it’s seen as vital in resolving the intrinsic imperfections found in the sector. Therefore public leadership manifests itself in regions like public managers where apart from managing the procedures and systems they also are involved in inspiration, motivation, and initiative, leadership for the running of the corporation. Public leadership is not entirely about leading people but it’s quite a complex process where those involved ought to embrace enterprising, intelligent, and active leadership at all times (Denhardt, Denhardt & Aristigueta, 2002).

The nature of public leadership is quite unique in its own ways and the public administrator operates in while incorporating numerous aspects of public leaderships in his/her work. Numerous people frequently think of executive behavior or functions when they hear the term leadership while disregarding the distinctive leadership techniques but generally there are several perspectives which describe how the administrator incorporate public leadership while in operation. Public administrators take on different leadership perspectives and their operations are much influenced thus choosing various roles to play at work.  For instance, this theory dictates if the administrator assumes entirely the perspective of scientific management then he/she will work while encompassed by the traditional principles of effectiveness and efficiency and these will fully define their processes and purposes of their work.  They strictly use the technological managerial proficiency and reasoned, scientific precision make the basis of their operation with no pressures emanating from political activity (Herman).

Public leadership which covers process improvement is evident where administrators hold onto excellent management by involving even stakeholders to realize and resolve all potential issues in effective and efficient processes. Thus two of perceptions of administration which are excellent and scientific management add more weight on classic public leadership dichotomy which is actually based on transactional administration ideas.

Furthermore, other administrators look on the professionalism part of their public leadership rather than the predictable and technical and these perspectives bring in values to the job as well as identify their potentially dominant position in society.  Some of the public administrators focus on the organizational or societal impact they possibly can initiate while others find significance in forming enormous public bureaucrats, whichever by mentoring, teaching, or even going on with their works in inspiring ways. All these views concerning public administration when critically looked into fit the public leadership perspectives thus help in explaining the nature of public leadership (Denhardt, Denhardt & Aristigueta, 2002).

In the Goodbye Happy Hour case study, Jane holds a managerial post in a public corporation where we see her make use of her professionalism in managing but she comes across difficult issues. Moreover, she is seen as a leader who is in the middle of a conflict with the employees where they are complaining of being overworked. Nevertheless she is seen to carry administrative leadership with her where she is supporting and developing followers who are delivering results. Seemingly, her superiors seem to be happy with her as she providing the required results in terms of projects completion as required in a legal, effective, and efficient manner.

The conflict brewing within the organization especially between Ryan and Jane if not properly handled would lead someone losing a job and on the other hand leaving Jane with lesser workers thus reducing the work output. Public administrators are prone to experience conflicts due to their work position which deals with variety of opinions, ambiguity, and uncertainty issues. Therefore Jane as the leader in the group needs to employ conflict management skills by taking up these different perspectives together with the incongruent pieces of data and mobilize them into quite productive solutions.

The dog case study reveals a form of leadership highly used by the politicians so as to impress the populace without bearing in mind the consequences of the issues before hand and how they will affect the community. For instance, Roderic who was in fact a retired lawyer drove the town advocating for the new dog laws to be done away with without critically looking over the issue thus this led people migrate to other regions which were more hospitable and progressive since the county was termed reactionary and backward region.  Actually, the area’s reputation deteriorated and what was once a famous town remained covered in poverty and backwardness. That’s a true picture of a leader with no innate leading skills as well as acquired ones once professional leaders came into the town, it has since been growing both socially and economically and some of the policies to reinstate would be the dog law which would prevent wayward roaming of dogs in the town as they pose a great health danger.

Cultured leaders have become rare in the American nation ranging from public leaders in the government, religious, social, or business realms. Everyone wonders where the dynamic, active, visible, and true leaders who are nationally recognized authentically and this issue emanates from the lack of basic culture based on mutual trust. Strong leadership blooms in a framework of mutual trust which is based on common values, ideas, and vision. Leadership plays a major role in building collaborative, harmonious teams within the aspect in which its applied in for instance be it in a corporation or a county together with the duty of leading them. These qualities illustrate the real leadership environment, a harmonious, unified culture which is exemplified by mutual trust that permits leadership to prevail. Leadership highly prevails within a context where both followers and leaders can be open to trust the intent, actions, and purposes of others. Therefore leadership only occurs in situations with atmosphere of mutual and harmonized actions based on a universal vision.

Culture is extremely important on the issue of leadership as it directs the living of associates both as persons and in their relations with others inside the organization. The strong cultures act as emotional and intellectual paradigms that are able to block reception of other cultures and this can bond persons into extremely strong coalitions of communally inter-reliant teams which emanates from a strong mutual trust built from a characteristically strong culture. People ought to find a common basis of values and beliefs for interaction and with these values and principles they will offer a common link in which people will base their trust on another person.  Values are the common beliefs everyone has in regard to what’s good or true to them and the commonly shared values forms the basis of trust between persons and consequently help in coining culture as well as shaping leadership. Thus for the country to produce authentic leaders it has to start from the individual values which help fostering mutual trust within the organization thus reflecting in culture as well as overall leadership quality.

Case Study 2

Conflict and Conflict Resolution 


The Elmwood Hospital dispute offers a broad representative example of the type of community dispute that has become more common place as established institutions compete with citizens for control over the allocation of scarce resources that are available. This paper will answer the following questions briefly concerning conflict and conflict resolution.

Types of interest

There are four types of interest at this scenario. These are:

Procedural – this represents the way things are done. Elmwood Hospital has this type of interest.

Substance – these include the natural gains by the different stakeholders (say salary gains for nurse/doctors, etc.). The CCC has this type of interest, they have gained on better healthcare (that of Elmwood Hospital) not available in their community.

Principle – this is the defining difference in values. This can be said to be from both the CCC and Elmwood Hospital. Both have different values hence the conflict.

Relationships – can include networking. This is from the other public (including teachers, students, nurses, and doctors) and their relationship with the CCC and the Elmwood Hospital now as a community.

Value Interest and Solution

In this complex relationship at Elmwood Hospital, there are three concerned parties namely the Elmwood administration, the Concerned Community Coalition and the other public. Every of these parties have its own share of public interest and anticipated solution.

The Concerned Community Coalition wants to increase preventive care for all of the patients at Elmwood Hospital in spite of where they come from. To effectively do this, they suggest that more members of the community be educated and recruited. Another interest by the CCC is to improve and expand outpatient facilities; this can be achieved by training and recruiting more professionals for the job.

Another interested party is Elmwood Hospital. The institution is seen as straining from an influx of new patients to from the neighboring community. As a result, its value of interest is to put more infrastructure and they have identified to collaborate with CCC to build a more integrated infrastructure to accommodate the high number of patients. Elmwood has also identified an increase of intern opportunities as its value interest with the assumption that interns will provide more services to the patients. Lastly but not least, the institution wants to retain present professionals by building more infrastructure for them to stay.

The last party is the other public. They are concerned with modernizing the neighborhood by involving the city in the program. They also are interested in the relationship between the different people who live in the neighborhood like teachers, nurses, doctors, and students. This can be tackled through the annual public health fair to educate them on why they should live harmoniously with one another.

 How Conflict Can Be Beneficial to an Organization according to DDA

In any organization, conflict can arise when two (the Concerned Community Coalition, CCC, and the Elm Wood administration) on the best way to carry forward a process. Usually, in many settings, individuals from their respective organizations become convinced that their solution is the best available option; usually because these individuals may have personally invested in the ideas. However as it may seem dangerous, conflict can be very beneficial to an organization. This kind of conflict can help present the pros and cons of available options in handling the arising issue(s). As long as the involved parties are aware that the goal of the organization is to improve procedures and processes, and finally accept a final decision or outcome. This type of conflict can therefore create effective processes with few costs or damages.

As seen earlier, conflict although often avoided, is not necessary bad. Conflict helps encourage open mindedness while helping avoid the tendency towards group think in which many organization fall into.

The environment in which public organizations deal in (like the case of Elmwood Hospital) is often chaotic and turbulent. However, organization is such environment tends to do well as compared to the other organizations that experience no conflicts due to existence of a heterogeneous population. According to some arguments, conflict is the lifeblood of a progressive and vibrant organization as it fosters innovation, sparks creativity and encourages personal improvement in the eyes of the public.

Administrative Conservatorship Model and Its Effect in Resolving the Conflict

The concept that is administrative conservatorship is and has been with the American constitutional tradition of providing a perspective to conceptualize the leadership roles of careers executives. From the point of institutions, administrative conservatorship is a process of preserving and strengthening an institution such that it can perform its desired social functions. Due to its links to broader considerations, administrative conservatorship focuses on fulfilling the needs of the organizations members. This means that the administrative elites’ (Elmwood Hospital administration’s) willingness to distribution of power out of moral principles and loyalty but while maintaining institutional integrity.

Importance of Community Involvement

Conflict resolution is that process of ending a disagreement by at least satisfying the needs of each side while trying to address their interests.  There are five main approaches of handling conflicts. These are accommodating, collaborating, avoiding, competing and compromising.  

The community outside the institutions can seriously affect its operations. Therefore, an intervention that will affect how people use the available resources will have to deal with some decisions which will play a role in deciding how the resources will be used.  The success of such institutions will depend on the degree to which the community can be engaged. A proper analysis of resource use should be carefully studied and allocated by the institution. Because the community is less likely to be homogeneous, conflicting sets of interests may arise and if not taken into account, management of the institution can breakdown due to lack of consensus. There is need for a careful analysis of the sort of management measures in use and how the measures are seen by the community. The measures ought to be carefully taken into account if new developments are in the offing.  

The Five Sources Of Power and How They Can Be Used To Resolve the Conflict

Conflict resolution is that process of ending a disagreement by at least satisfying the needs of each side while trying to address their interests.  There are five main approaches of handling conflicts. These are accommodating, collaborating, avoiding, competing and compromising. 

The accommodative approach is cooperative and unassertive thus it is seen as an antipode of competing. Using this approach means that the parties involved will have to overlook their own concerns in order to try and satisfy the other party. The mode can involve a nuance of self sacrifice and trying to obey an order against another party’s wish. This is especially useful when the issue is important to one side than the other. However, accommodative style fears the consequences of a continued conflict and thus will give up easily. 

The avoiding style. This style is not exactly one that resolves problems because of its unassertiveness and uncooperative nature. It is diplomatic way of avoiding an issue until a more appropriate moment. However, this style is used when the prospective of a possible victory are slim or when the one party is better placed to resolve the problem.

The collaborating style. This is an assertive and cooperative style that seeks to find a solution for both parties involved. It can be used especially when the matter is of high importance.

The compromising style. Like the collaborating style, this style is also assertive and cooperative that seeks to find a fast and mutually satisfactory solution that will meet the needs of both parties. The mode may involve dividing the difference between two different stances, trade concessions and try to arrive at a middle-ground. If both parties are willing to work together on the said problem, they will easily integrate their interests in the solution and quickly solve the problem.

The competitive style. This style tries to eliminate or dominate the other party in an adversarial way. It doesn’t compromise and parties will not inform the other party if they seem ignorant.