Animal testing is defined as the scientific use of animals in research to find new cures for emerging diseases. It is essential to note that both animals and human beings develop same kinds of diseases; therefore, these experiments are usually vital in finding ways of fighting them. Additionally, they help the scientists study the biology of different animals and know how their bodies function. These experiments may require the killing of an animal, though at times they remain alive. According to research, the animals mostly used in testing are mice or rats. Most governments regulate the use of domestic animals because of euthanasia.
Animal testing has been controversial for a long period now. People are divisive on the morality of such kind of scientific experiments. Consequently, different countries have dissimilar rules and regulations that govern animal testing. Common regulations against animal testing include the use of domestic animals (Judson 55). Most governments regulate the use of domestic and precious wild animals. The regulation of the use of domestic animals is essential to ensure that there is a reduction in animal suffering and euthanasia. Despite the fact that this essay analyzes the points that are for and against animal testing, and its general opinion is against the use of animals in scientific researches.
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Standpoints for Animal Testing. Firstly, animal testing is ideal for human health because it helps scientists to come up with medication for certain diseases. Notably, animals develop similar disesases just like human beings. Therefore, the scientific use of these animals to test medications for such diseases enhances the survival of human life. Animals that have developed the same diseases with humans get trapped before medication is applied to them (Lovegrove 110). The final decision of the doctors will depend on how the animal will react to the drug. A positive response from the animal means that the drug can cure human beings too, thus, it will be applied to the humans who are suffering from a specific disease. However, if the drug experiment is negative, for instance, if it kills the animals, it will never be applied to people, and the research will continue. This is one of the main reasons why animal testing is important.
Secondly, animal testing is the best option since humans are superior to animals. A number of people argue against the use of animals but fail to give alternatives. If testing is done to human beings, then it would amount to lack of respect for human life. Creation in the Bible proves that a man was created last with the power to take care of other creatures. This means that a human is the most superior out of all beings. Consequently, animal testing is the best option for a scientist to carry out researches simply due to lack of other alternatives. When there is an emerging disease, scientists are tasked to do a research and come up with a new drug. This drug is tested on the animals and the results are verified (Owen 49). Some of these tests end tragically; therefore, such experiments cannot be carried out in peril of human lives.
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Thirdly, animal testing is cheap. It is is cost effective in the scientific research field. The animals mostly used (rats and mice) often breed quickly. Rats give birth to about 9-12 spawns compared to one child at a time for human beings. Animal testing is cheap because the rats can easily be trapped and set for the experiment. Human beings, on the other hand, need a lot of paperwork and high compensation if used for the testing of new drugs. Sometimes, testing of drugs can be dangerous because some medicines can be toxic, which can be very dangerous to human health. The use of animals is preferable since researchers use less money to test a drug.
Additionally, animal testing has led to the development of the pharmaceutical field in many countries. Notably, many countries in the world allow animal testing despite the fact that there are regulations that govern the practice. Animal testing has been of great importance in the development of the pharmaceutical field because it has enabled doctors to come up with medicines that can cure their patients. Without animal testing, most people would have died and the field of medicine would not have been prospered. There are notable vaccines, such as the polio vaccine, that have been effective world wide. The polio vaccine was developed after being tested on animals and its results proved to be efficient. This vaccine was used to prevent kids in the entire world from physical disabilities. Additionally, the development of the surgical field majorly depends on animal testing to teach medical students.
Lastly, animal testing is the best option for psychological investigations. Psychological testing involves the functioning of the brain. It is the scientific study, which elucidates how the human brain functions depend on the environments where they develop in. This experiment was best used on the rats. Two rats were trapped. One of them was placed in isolation and another one was placed to grow with the other rats (Reinhardt 89). Later, the rat that was on solitary confinement developed small mind unlike the rat that grew with the rest of its kind. It also learnt little because it was alone. Animal testing is significant in psychological study because these experiments cannot be tried on human beings. A human can be kept in isolation for a number of years as it is considered to be a torture.
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Standpoints Against Animal Testing. Firstly, animal testing equals cruelty and euthanasia of animals. Notably, animals have brains and hearts, and breathe just like normal human beings. However, human beings take advantage of weaker creatures and use them for experiments, some of which end in their demise. For this very reason, people should respect animals because they have their right to live too (Watson 30). The death of animals should be considered as euthanasia since researchers do it knowingly. Scientists, therefore, have to go back to the drawing board and come up with other options to obtain cure against human diseases. Animals have their rights as well, for example, it is illegal to kill pets like dogs. Animal testing should not be an excuse for the killing of animals. In accordance with psychology, researchers use animals in view of the supposed opinion that they do not respond to trauma. However, the research shows that most animals like chimps are closely related to human beings and they also have emotions. These animals are isolated from the others, and this makes them traumatized.
Secondly, animal testing is not right since there are several alternatives that can be used instead. Scientists have been using rats in the tests against cancers and other ailments. However, there are other options that can be used in order not to torture animals. A number of people have donated their lungs and livers towards cancer experiments. These human organs that are donated by people can be used instead of animals.
Thirdly, animal testing should be banned since the body systems of animals are different from those of human beings. The experiments are usually conducted on the animals but for the benefit of people. However, the animals' body systems function differently from the humans making this experiments unrealistic. One of the most insupportable researches is the testing for cosmetics. The cosmetics are tested on animals' bodies before they are confirmed for the application of the human body. Normally, the animals shed their skins since they respond differently to these cosmetics. Additionally, different animals have different genes and metabolic pathways, and even the same genetic diseases that can cause various reactions. Another good example is the effects of tobacco on human lungs. Previously, experiments were done to study the effects of tobacco on people. Smoke from cigarettes were used on the animals and the results showed that tobacco did not cause cancer. Following this, the warning about tobacco as a cause of cancer was withdrawn for a number of years, which led to huge losses of human lives due to lack of information. Therefore, animal testing can be misleading because it can at times give wrong results during the tests. A number of tests conducted on animals have proved successful for animals, but disastrous for humans. The latest developments in technology should make it easy for scientists to come up with new ways of finding cures rather than using systems that may affect people.
Furthermore, animal testing should be banned since it is expensive. It is a practice that involves a lot of caring for the animals to keep them healthy during tests. Medical care for all those animals is expensive, hence, it is a waste of tax payers' money. The research money should instead be used for developing ways of attaining novel medications to treat various diseases. Other cheaper methods could be adopted to ensure that animals are preserved and the costs associated with animal testing are reduced significantly.
Lastly, animal testing is ethically incorrect and leads to a reduction in animal numbers. Since it is assumed that people have a caring heart, they should cease to kill animals like mice the same way they do not kill dogs or cats. Caged animals used for experimentation also have relatives and young ones, and this makes them isolated and traumatised. Additionally, the animals' numbers have been falling since it is estimated that approximately 50-100 million animals are annually used for experiments.
The Position of the Paper
This essay is generally against animal testing. Here are some of the reasons why. Animal testing is purely torture of animals since their body systems do not function like ours. There have been many tests carried out on animals, but they failed to cure human beings. Rats end up being tortured with tumors while the result is different. The best example is the test done with tobacco to define if it causes cancer. It was supposed to have positive results, but it proved to be wrong in the end (Zborowski 98). Animal testing is also expensive. Almost 100 million animals are put on experiments on an annual basis. All these animals need care, which is usually expensive. Alternatively, researchers should develop new technology in order to seek medications that can be used. Finally, there are other options that can be used in the research, thus, there is no need to make these animals suffer.
Animal testing entails the use of animals in scientific research, which involves tests for the sake of discovery of new medication. The entire topic of animal testing has elicited intense debate among individuals as some support the tests while others oppose them. Proponents reiterate that animal testing is ideal because it helps protect the health of human beings. Furthermore, proponents have the opinion that people are superior to animals and it would only be right to use them in the discovery of medicine in order to treat human beings. The use of animals in scientific research also earns support from the fact that it is a cheap practice. Proponents assert that animal testing is cost effective and plays a significant role in the scientific field. In addition, those in support of animal testing affirm that it is the best alternative for psychological testing, and it has also helped in the development of the pharmaceutical field. On the other hand, opponents state that animal testing is an undesirable practice because it is tantamount to cruelty against innocent animals. More so, opponents of animal research assert that the body systems of animals are different from those of humans. As a consequence, animals cannot be used in the development of medicine. Animal testing cannot also be taken as the only one choice. Scientists should be more creative to venture into other options that would be vital in ensuring animals are protected, and effective medicines are discovered. Opponents also confirm that animal testing is not in line with the ethical standards that all individuals around the globe are supposed to uphold. People should be ethical enough to ensure they care and love animals the way they love themselves. In a general way, this paper is against animal testing. Such scientific experiments, even if done at the pretence of discovering new diseases and medicines, amount to the torture of innocent animals, and this practice must be discouraged immediately. Animals are part of nature, and human beings need to protect them instead of subjecting them to unnecessary torture. Moreover, animal testing is actually an expensive process, and other cheaper methods of drug development and disease diagnosis should be adopted to cut down on these costs.
Judson, Karen. Animal Testing. Chicago: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2006. Print.
Lovegrove, Ray. Health. New York: Evans Brothers, 2008. Print.
Owen, Marna. Animal Rights. Chicago: Twenty-First Century Books, 2009. Print.
Reinhardt, Christoph A. Alternatives to Animal Testing. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2008. Print.
Watson, Stephanie. Animal Testing. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2009. Print.
Zborowski, Maciej. Magnetic Cell Separation. New York: Elsevier, 2008. Print.