Origin of Arab-Israel dispute
Middle East has been one of the most volatile parts of the world today. Violence has persisted since the end of the Second World War. The source of conflict between Arabs and Israelis has a long history dating from the days of the old. It has a complicated series of connected causes (Peretz, 1996). Arab-Israeli enmity is said to be about land, resources, refugees and military power. These are only face value; their problem arises out of something far more than can be seen by the eye. At its heart, Arab Israel conflict is brought about by the issue of respect. This respect does not only lies in politics, resources, economy, socially and geographical division, but respect for the existence of such kind of people. Their existence is both physical and spiritual.
Consequently, the conflict between Israel and the Arabs is one of the most complex one that has been faced in the world. Its complexity comes from different dimensions to this conflict: the Israeli-Palestinian dimension and the Israeli-Arab dimension. The origin of the conflict is dated back to the end of the nineteenth century. This is a time when the Zionist movement came with an idea of building their home in Palestine (Peretz, 1996). This found a bitter opposition from Arab population who lived in the country. The result was quarrel between two national movements for possession that led to a major conflict. Many Arabian people maintain that the main cause of the conflict is the land that Israel took from Palestine Arabs. They view Israel is an aggressive state and the real source of violence and conflict in the region.
Israelis, on the other hand, says that the main cause of the conflict is not dispossession of the land. Israel maintains that Arab rejection of Israel’s right to exist as a sovereign state in the Middle East is the root of their problem. Arab main aim is the liquidation of the State of Israel while Israel acts only in self-defense. Israel does this in response to the Arab challenges. There is hope that the Israel will come to an end. Peace talk between Israel and Palestine authority can be of much help. Both parts must be willing to dialogue and should stop attack on one another. The united nation should also assist in solving Middle East problem by sending envoys there.
Motives of United States in the region
Specifically, what are American interests in the region? Was the United States correct for getting involved? Have we made any specific mistakes? United States played a less but equally controversial role in the events that surrounded the war between Israel and Palestine. American policy was tone between the pro-Zionist White House and the pro-Arab State Department. At the beginning of 1947, President Harry Truman made a decision support partition; this was against the state policy (Peretz, 1996). State Department came to a conclusion that partition was impracticable in 1948. Truman and the State Department urged the Jews to delay declaration of independence and to enter into negotiations with the Palestine. Jews did not heed this but proclaimed their state independent without consulting the State Department.
American position during Arab-Israel crisis was weak and ambiguous. President Johnson had tried to prevent a war by restraining Israel from participating in the war. These warnings were not heeded by Nasser’s and Johnson himself had to give a green light to attack.
President Richard Nixon and his National Security Adviser, Henry Kissinger, approached the Middle East and tried to keep Soviet Union out of the area. Israel was perceived as a strategic asset and a bastion of regional stability (Chirri, 1985). They provided Israel with economic and military aid on an ever growing scale while reducing pressure on her. America involvement in the Middle East crisis was their main interest in Middle East oil.
America involvement was important in that it eventually brought Israel and Palestinians to peace table. It has also driven other country away for example, Egypt and Syria from involvement in the war (Chirri, 1985). United state has made some mistakes for example; they contributed to the outbreak of the Yom Kippur though not direct, by supporting the Israeli policy of trying to maintain an untenable status quo. United States has been dragged into quarrels Lebanon quarrel between Israel and Lebanon.
How Turkey been a model for developing nations and its effectiveness in dealing with such issues as secularization, westernization, and modernization.
Turkey, development accelerated much in 1950’s and still is in progress. The agricultural mechanization, highway transportation and industrialization have been major factor in development in turkey. Turkey has trade related commitments agreements which are wide and deep than preferential reduction in tariffs. Turkey has assumed a full liberalization in the country and between the partner countries for example Egypt. In building industry, contractors, called land developer, works according to the general rule. This is a common way in Turkey and is most preferred. Law has been put into practice to formalize illegal settlements. According to this law; all illegal settlements on government land before the law come practice have been be put in place. The slum dwellers will pay the value of the land according to the current market value in a period of 4 years with a 12 equal installments. In this law more than 400m2 cannot be allocated for each slum. Firstly ‘title allocation document’ had been issued to each slum resident by local authorities. The title was given for each slum by the governmental agency. Turkey have the largest agriculture and food processing sectors in the EU’s economy. Turkey has strong ties with the EU and has 37% to 50% of their imports from it.
Turkey has relatively low rates for many of her products, notable only 7% for Manufactured goods. Custom union agreement in industrial products with Turkey aims at eventual membership of the EU and covers the abolition of duties on all industrial products. The agreement helps turkey to progressively improve its agricultural sector. The notable exceptions are in clothing industry where Turkey exerts significant pressure. In automobiles, it gains from improved market access in EU countries. Overall, the modernization of turkey has improved its economy at greater length in the long run.
The differences between Arab nationalism and Islamism (political Islam) and reasons for growth in the future
Arab nationalism and Islam has been two ideological forces in the Arab in the twentieth century. Most of the Arabs are Muslim and as such Arab nationalist who was known to be secular accepted the part played by in the Arab nationalist movement. Arab nationalism was a political expression of the reformist discourse of Rashid Rida, Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakbi, Tahir al-Jaza’iri, Abd al-Hamid al-Zahrawi, and their students. In their view Arab-Islamic reformists, Arabism was meant to reassert the Arab identity. Palestine’s Arabs was blatantly religious.
In 1950s, military coups brought young Arab nationalist officers to power in many countries owned by the Arabs. These countries included Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Yemen and Algeria. In this period there were exclusive and radical views from the Arab nationalism. Militant background the forces in power, the weak legitimacy base, and the sweeping program of modernization made the Arab nationalist entity to turn an authoritarian state. The results of this were the eruption of continuous confrontations between the Arab nationalist regimes and the Islamic political forces. The confrontations came was 1954, Egypt went on a desperate measures to destroy their Islamic opponents (Chirri, 1985). Many Muslim activists were jailed without trial and subjected torture and psychological destruction. Great Muslim intellectuals were executed or exiled permanently. Arabs’ failure to create a united and independent state after World War I forced young Arab nationalists, like Darwish al-Miqdadi, Zaki al-Arsuzi, Edmond Rabat and Qunstantin Zurayq, to seek to re-emphasize the project of Arab unity. They were graduates of the American University of Beirut and French and British universities and employed the power of an imagined ethnic essence.
Also there was a notion that colonial administrations were trying to destroy the Arab nation. Arab intellectuals of the 1930s and 1940s responded by laying the foundations of an exclusive Arab nationalist ideology. In the long run the Islamist-nationalist convergence has a great chance of prevailing in future.
Impact has the Muslim resurgence had on world history since 1945 and the cause of resurgence and its consequences.
Islam has undergone much ‘revival’ from 1945. There has been a greater devotion on the Muslim countries to see Islam entering into the political sphere. Islam has always been heart of their view and has influenced their ideas and actions. Resurgence is marked by a belief that there is a difference between what precscribed by Islam is and what Muslim countries practices. Thus new ideas and movements seeking to remedy this disparity have developed.
Islamic resurgence was invoked by the theorists of the ummah. This program is rooted in the Muslim experience in recent centuries and the perception that Islam decline has been responsible for the decline of the Muslim world’s fortunes. This has been caused by socio-economic change influenced by the West and by the onset of modernity. New communication infrastructure and political development has also been a major influence this.
Western imperialism in the Muslim world was a belief that the apparent weakness of Muslim civilization could be corrected by adopting Western models and ideas. Some intellectuals argued that Muslim society should be reorganized along some more ‘rational’ lines. When west seemed to self destruct after World War 2. If Nagasaki and Hiroshima were to be the end of Westernization, it had no reason bothering. Islamic resurgence deplores the adoption of Western models and institutions. They arguing that only truly Islamic practice can extricate the Muslim nations from their difficulties (Chirri, 1985).Their ignorance is taken to be even more sinful because of adoption of western ways. This is because it is not only based on ignorance, but a deviation from the revealed path. The way to provide remedy this situation is to stop Western models and to return to the ordering of society in the immediate aftermath of Muhammad’s revelation.
Although the Islamic resurgence cannot be seen to wholly be from a reaction against this Western influence, it mostly constitutes a reaction against the ideas of the West. Mostly the ideas about how countries should be governed have caused Islamic resurgence and many terrorist actions.